Amendments of the Constitution of India – List

amendments
1st
1951
Added Ninth Schedule to protect the land reform and other laws included in it from the judicial review amendments
Added three more grounds of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression, public order, friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to an offence. Also, made the restrictions ‘reasonable’ and thus, justiciable in nature
6th
1956
new subject in the Union list i.e., taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of interstate trade
7th
1956
Abolished the existing classification of states into four categories , Part A, Part B, Part C and Part D states, and reorganized them into 14 states and 6 union territories.
Extended the jurisdiction of high courts to union territories
Provided for the establishment of a common high court for two or more states.
Provided for the appointment of additional and acting judges of the high court. amendments
10th
1961
Incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli
11th
1961
Changed the procedure of election of the vice-president by providing for an electoral college instead of a joint meeting
12th
1962
Incorporated Goa, Daman and Diu in the Indian Union
13th
1962
Gave the status of a state to Nagaland
14th
1962
Incorporated Puducherry in the Indian Union
creation of legislatures and council of ministers for the UTs of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu, and Puducherry
15th
1963
Enabled the high courts to issue writs to any person or authority even outside its territorial jurisdiction if the cause of action arise within its territorial limits.
16th
1963
Empowered the state to impose further restriction on the rights to freedom of speech and expression, to assemble peaceably and to form associations in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India.
19th
1966
Abolished the system of Election Tribunals and vested the power to hear election petitions in the High Courts.
21st
1967
Sindhi as the 15th language in the Eight Schedule
22nd
1969
autonomous State of Meghalaya within the State of Assam
26th
1971
Abolished the privy purses and privileges of the former rulers of princely states.
31st
1972
Increased the number of Lok Sabha seats from 525 to 545
36th
1975
Made Sikkim a full-fledged State of the Indian Union and omitted the Tenth Schedule.
38th
1975
Made the declaration of emergency by the president non-justiciable.
Made the promulgation of ordinances by the president, governors and administrators of union territories non-justiciable.
42nd
1976
42nd amendments also called as Mini constitution
Added 3 new words (socialist, secular and integrity) in the Preamble.
Added Fundamental Duties by the citizens (new Part IV A).
Made the president bound by the advice of the cabinet
Provided for administrative tribunals and tribunals for other matters (Added Part XIV A).
Froze the seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies on the basis of 1971 census till 2001.
Made the constitutional amendments beyond judicial scrutiny.
Curtailed the power of judicial review and writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and high courts.
Raised the tenure of Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies from 5 to 6 years.
Added three new Directive Principles viz., equal justice and freelegal aid, participation of workers in the management of industries and protection of environment, forests and wild life.
Facilitated the proclamation of national emergency in a part of territory of India.
Extended the one-time duration of the President’s rule in a state from 6 months to one year.
Shifted five subjects from the state list to the concurrent list, viz, education, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, weights and measures and administration of justice
Did away with the requirement of quorum in the Parliament and the state legislatures. amendments
Provided for the creation of the AllIndia Judicial Service.
44th
1978
44th amendments Empowered the president to send back once the advice of cabinet for reconsideration. But, the reconsidered advice is to be binding on the president.
Deleted the provision which made the satisfaction of the president, governor
Replaced the terminternal disturbance’ by ‘armed rebellion’ in respect of national emergency
Made the President to declare a national emergency only on the written recommendation of the cabinet.
Deleted the right to property from the list of  Fundamental Rights and made it only a legal right.
Provided that the fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended during a national emergency.
52nd
1985
Provided for disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection and added a new 10th Schedule
58th
1987
Provided for an authoritative text of the Constitution in Hindi language and gave the same legal sanctity to the Hindi version of the Constitution
61st
1989
Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years
69th
1991
Accorded a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory  of Delhi and creation of a 70-member legislative assembly
70th
1992
Provided for the inclusion of the members of the Legislative Assemblies of National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry in the electoral college for the election of the president
71st
1992
Included konkani, manipuri and nepali languages in the Eight Schedule
73rd
1992
Granted constitutional status and protection to the Panchayati raj institutions. For this purpose
Amendment has added a new PartIX entitled as ‘the panchayats’ and a new 11th Schedule containing 29 functional items of the panchayats.
74th
1992
Granted constitutional status and protection to the urban local bodies. For this purpose, the Amendment has added a new Part IX-A entitled as ‘the municipalities’ and a new Twelfth Schedule containing 18 functional items of the municipalities.
84th
2001
Extended the ban on readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for another 25 years up to 2026 amendments
86th
2002
Made elementary education a fundamental right newly-added Article 21-A Changed the subject matter of Article 45 in Directive Principles.
Added a new fundamental duty under Article 51-A
89th
2003
Bifurcated the erstwhile combined National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into two separate bodies
91st
2003
Total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Central Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha and State legislative
The provision of the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) pertaining to exemption from disqualification in case of split
97th
2001
It made the right to form cooperative societies a fundamental right (Article 19)
It included a new Directive Principle of State Policy on promotion of co-operative societies (Article 43-B)
It added a new Part IX-B in the constitution which is entitled as “The Co-operative societies” (Articles 243ZH to 243ZT).
99th
2014
Replaced the collegium system of appointing judges to the Supreme Court and High Courts with a new body called the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC). However, in 2015, the Supreme Court has declared this amendment act as unconstitutional and void amendments
100th
2015
Gave effect to the acquiring of certain territories by India
and transfer of certain other territories to Bangladesh
101st
2017
Introduced the Goods and Services Tax.
102nd
2018
Constitutional status to National Commission for Backward Classes
103rd
2019
10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Section
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