Coastal Plains in India

western eastern coastal plains in india konkan malabar coromandel coast map

  • India has a coastline of 7517 Km
  • 6100 km of mainland coastline and 1417 km Indian islands
  • Cost line is touching 13 States and UTs
  • Coastal Length of Indian States & UTs in mainland
    • Gujarat – 1215 Km
    • Andhra Pradesh – 974 Km
    • Tamil Nadu – 907 Km
    • Maharashtra – 652.6 Km
    • Kerala – 569.7 Km
    • Odisha – 476.4 Km
    • Karnataka – 280 Km
    • Goa (with Daman & Diu) – 160.5 Km
    • West Bengal — 157.5 Km
    • Puducherry — 30.6 Km (UT)

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western eastern coastal plains in india konkan malabar coromandel coast map

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Western Coast Parts

  • Kutch and Kathiawar coast
  • Gujarat Plain
  • Konkan coast
  • Goan coast
  • Malabar coast

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Eastern Coast Parts

  • Utkal Plain
  • Andhra Plain
  • Coromandel coast or Tamil Nadu Plain

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western eastern coastal plains in india konkan malabar coromandel coast map

Western Coastal Plains of India

  • It extends from Rann of Kachchh  in the north to Cape Comorin (Kanniyakumari).
  • Western coastal plains are an example of submerged coastal plain.
  • Because of this submergence it is a narrow belt with an average width of about 65 km
  • It provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbors.
  • Kandla, Mazagaon, JLN port Navha Sheva, Marmagao, Mangalore, Cochin, etc. are some important natural ports located along the west coast
  • Western coastal plains are narrow in the middle and get broader towards north and south
  • Rivers flowing through this coastal plain do not form any delta but  a few estuaries.
  • The estuaries, of the Narmada and the Tapi are the major ones.

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Kutch and Kathiawar Coast

  • It is extension of Peninsular plateau treated as part of Western Coastal Plains as they are now levelled down.
  • Kathiawar is made of the Deccan Lava
  • The Kutch Peninsula was an island surrounded by seas and lagoons.
  • These seas and lagoons were later filled by sediment brought by the Indus River which used to flow through this area.
  • Lack of rains in recent times has turned it into arid and semi-arid landscape.
  • Salt-soaked plain to the north of Kutch is the Great Rann.
  • Its southern continuation, known as the Little Rann lies on the coast and south-east of Kachchh.
  • The Kathiawar Peninsula lies to the south of the Kachchh.
  • The Gir Range is located in the southern part of the Kathiawar peninsula.
  • It is covered with dense forests and is famous as home of the Gir lion.
  • Mt. Girnar (1,117 m) is the highest point and is of volcanic origin

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Gujarat Plain

  • The Gujarat Plain lies east of Kachchh and Kathiawar and slopes towards the west and south-west.
  • Formed by the rivers Narmada, Tapi, Mahi and Sabarmati
  • The plain includes the southern part of Gujarat and the coastal areas of the Gulf of Khambat.
  • The eastern part of this plain is fertile enough to support agriculture

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Konkan Coast

  • The Konkan Plain is the south of the Gujarat plain
  • It stretches between Daman to Goa.
  • Konkan coast is about 720 km long.
  • This is most submerged coastal area of India
  • It has some features of marine erosion including cliffs, shoals, reefs and islands in the Arabian Sea.
  • The Thane creek around Mumbai is an important embayment which provides an excellent natural harbour.

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Goan Coast

  • Coast of Goa and Karnataka
  • It is a narrowest coastal plain with an average width of 8-25 km, the maximum being 70 km near Mangalore.
  • Sharavati river makes Gersoppa (Jog) Falls which is 271 m high.

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Malabar Coast

  • The Kerala Plain also known as the Malabar Plain.
  • It located between Mangalore and Kanniyakumari.
  • It is wider and low-lying plain
  • Existence of lakes, lagoons, backwaters, spits, etc. is a significant characteristic of the Malabar coast.
  • The backwaters, locally known as kayals are the shallow lagoons
  • Vembanad Lake is the largest among those
  • Every year the famous Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala

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Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast

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Eastern Coastal Plains of India

  • Extending from the Subarnarekha river along the West Bengal-Odisha border to Kanniyakumari.
  • Eastern coastal plain is broader and is an example of an emergent coast.
  • There are well-developed deltas here, formed by the rivers flowing eastward in to the Bay of Bengal, include Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri
  • Because of its emergent nature and continental shelf, which  extends up to 500 km into the sea
  • It makes difficult for the development of good ports and harbours.
  • This plain is known as
    • Northern Circars – Mahanadi to Krishna river
    • Carnatic – Krishna to Cauvery river

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Utkal Plain

  • The Utkal Plain comprises coastal areas of Odisha.
  • It includes the Mahanadi delta.
  • The most prominent physiographic feature of this plain is the Chilka Lake.
  • It is the biggest lake in the country and its area varies between 780 sq km in winter to 1,144 sq km in the monsoon months.

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Andhra Plain

  • South of the Utkal Plain and extends up to Pulicat Lake.
  • Pulicat lake has been barred by a long sand spit known as Sriharikota Island
  • The two deltas of the Godavari and the Krishna have merged with each other and formed a single physiographic unit.
  • The combined delta has advanced by about 35 km towards the sea during the recent years.
  • Kolleru Lake which was once a lagoon at the shore but now lies far inland
  • This coast lacks good harbours except Vishakhapatnam and Machilipatnam.

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Coromandel Coast 

  • Coromandel coast also known as Tamil Nadu Plain
  • It stretches from Pulicat lake to Kanniyakumari
  • The fertile soil and large scale irrigation facilities have made the Cauvery delta (Thanjavur) the granary of South India.
  • Coromandel or Payan Ghat plain stretches from Krishna delta to Kanyakumari

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Significance of the Coastal Plains

  • Large parts of the coastal plains of India are covered by fertile soils on which different crops are grown
  • Coconut trees grow all along the coast.
  • The entire length of the coast is dotted with big and small ports which help in carrying out trade.
  • The sedimentary rocks of these plains are said to contain large deposits of mineral oil (KG Basin).
  • Sands of Kerala coast have large quantity of Monazite, use for nuclear power.
  • Fishing is an important occupation of the people living in the coastal areas.
  • Low lying areas of Gujarat are famous for producing salt.
  • Kerala’s backwaters are important tourist destinations.
  • Goa provides good beaches. This is also an important tourist destination.

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Some Important Beaches

  • Marina, TN – The Longest beach of India
  • Kovalam, Kerala – Monazite and Limonite found here
  • Girgaum Chowpatti, MH – Famous for Ganesh Chaturthi
  • Alappuzha, Kerala – Venice of the East

western eastern coastal plains in india konkan malabar coromandel coast

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