- India has a coastline of 7517 Km
- 6100 km of mainland coastline and 1417 km Indian islands
- Cost line is touching 13 States and UTs
- Coastal Length of Indian States & UTs in mainland
- Gujarat— 1215 Km
- Andhra Pradesh —974Km
- Tamil Nadu — 907 Km
- Maharashtra —652.6 Km
- Kerala — 569.7 Km
- Odisha —476.4 Km
- Karnataka —280 Km
- Goa (with Daman & Diu) — 160.5 Km
- West Bengal — 157.5 Km
- Puducherry — 30.6 Km (Union Territory)
- Kutch and Kathiawar coast
- Gujarat Plain
- Konkan coast
- Goan coast
- Malabar coast
- Utkal Plain
- Andhra Plain
- Tamil Nadu Plain
- It extends from Rann of Kachchh in the north to Cape Comorin (Kanniyakumari).
- Western coastal plains are an example of submerged coastal plain.
- Because of this submergence it is a narrow belt with an average width of about 65 km
- It provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbors.
- Kandla, Mazagaon, JLN port Navha Sheva, Marmagao, Mangalore, Cochin, etc. are some of the important natural ports located along the west coast
- Western coastal plains are narrow in the middle and get broader towards north and south
- Rivers flowing through this coastal plain do not form any delta but a few estuaries.
- The estuaries, of the Narmada and the Tapi are the major ones.
Kutch and Kathiawar coast
- It is extension of Peninsular plateau (Kathiawar is made of the Deccan Lava) treated as part of Western Coastal Plains as they are now levelled down.
- The Kutch Peninsula was an island surrounded by seas and lagoons.
- These seas and lagoons were later filled by sediment brought by the Indus River which used to flow through this area.
- Lack of rains in recent times has turned it into arid and semi-arid landscape.
- Salt-soaked plain to the north of Kutch is the Great Rann.
- Its southern continuation, known as the Little Rann lies on the coast and south-east of Kachchh.
- The Kathiawar Peninsula lies to the south of the Kachchh.
- The Gir Range is located in the southern part of the Kathiawar peninsula.
- It is covered with dense forests and is famous as home of the Gir lion.
- Mt. Girnar (1,117 m) is the highest point and is of volcanic origin.
- The Gujarat Plain lies east of Kachchh and Kathiawar and slopes towards the west and south west.
- Formed by the rivers Narmada, Tapi, Mahi and Sabarmati
- The plain includes the southern part of Gujarat and the coastal areas of the Gulf of Khambat.
- The eastern part of this plain is fertile enough to support agriculture
- The Konkan Plain south of the Gujarat plain extends from Daman to Goa
- This is most submerged coastal area of India
- It has some features of marine erosion including cliffs, shoals, reefs and islands in the Arabian Sea.
- The Thane creek around Mumbai is an important embayment which provides an excellent natural harbour.
- Coast of Goa and Karnataka
- It is a narrowest coastal plain with an average width of 8-25 km, the maximum being 70 km near Mangalore.
- Sharavati river makes Gersoppa (Jog) Falls which is 271 m high.
- The Kerala Plain also known as the Malabar Plain.
- Between Mangalore and Kanniyakumari.
- It is wider and low lying plain
- Existence of lakes, lagoons, backwaters, spits, etc. is a significant characteristic of the malabar coast.
- The backwaters, locally known as kayals are the shallow lagoons
- Largest among these is the Vembanad Lake
- Every year the famous Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala
- Extending from the Subarnarekha river along the West Bengal-Odisha border to Kanniyakumari.
- Eastern coastal plain is broader and is an example of an emergent coast.
- There are well developed deltas here, formed by the rivers flowing eastward in to the Bay of Bengal, include Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri
- Because of its emergent nature and continental shelf, which extends up to 500 km into the sea
- It makes difficult for the development of good ports and harbours.
- This plain is known as
- Northern Circars – Mahanadi to Krishna river
- Carnatic – Krishna to Cauvery river
- The Utkal Plain comprises coastal areas of Odisha.
- It includes the Mahanadi delta.
- The most prominent physiographic feature of this plain is the Chilka Lake.
- It is the biggest lake in the country and its area varies between 780 sq km in winter to 1,144 sq km in the monsoon months.
- South of the Utkal Plain and extends upto Pulicat Lake.
- Pulicat lake has been barred by a long sand spit known as Sriharikota Island
- The two deltas of Godavari and Krishna have merged with each other and formed a single physiographic unit.
- The combined delta has advanced by about 35 km towards the sea during the recent years.
- Kolleru Lake which was once a lagoon at the shore but now lies far inland
- This coast lacks good harbors with the exception of Vishakhapatnam and Machilipatnam.
Tamil Nadu Plain or Coramandal Coast
- Tamil Nadu Plain stretches from Pulicat lake to Kanniyakumari
- The fertile soil and large scale irrigation facilities have made the Cauvery delta (Thanjavur) the granary of South India.
- Coramandal or Payan Ghat plain stretches from Krishna delta to Kanyakumari
Significance of the Coastal Plains
- Large parts of the coastal plains of India are covered by fertile soils on which different crops are grown
- Coconut trees grow all along the coast.
- The entire length of the coast is dotted with big and small ports which help in carrying out trade.
- The sedimentary rocks of these plains are said to contain large deposits of mineral oil (KG Basin).
- The sands of Kerala coast have large quantity of Monazite, use for nuclear power.
- Fishing is an important occupation of the people living in the coastal areas.
- Low lying areas of Gujarat are famous for producing salt.
- Kerala backwaters are important tourist destinations.
- Goa provides good beaches. This is also an important tourist destination.
Some Important Beaches
- Marina, TN – Longest beach of India
- Kovalam, Kerala – Monazite and Limonite found here
- Girgaum Chowpatti, MH – Famous for Ganesh Chaturthi
- Alappuzha, Kerala – Venice of the East