- British came to India in 1600 as traders, as East India Company
- They had exclusive right of trading in India according to charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I.
- In 1765, the Company, which till now had purely trading functions obtained the ‘diwani’ (irights over revenue and civil justice) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
Regulating Act – 1773
- In 1772, East India Company was in financial crisis and asked a loan of 1 million pounds from British government
- Allegations of corruption and nepotism were rampant against company officials.
- Because of famine in Bengal, huge population perished.
- Dual form of administration was drawing a lot of complaints.
- Defeat of company by Mysore’s Hyder Ali in 1769.
- The Governors of Madras and Bombay were brought under the control of Bengal
- Governor- General of Bengal
- Executive Council of Four member
- A Supreme Court of Judicature was established (Sir Elijah Impey as Chief Justice & 3 other judge).
- Supreme Court had civil and criminal jurisdiction over only British subjects, not Indian natives
- Prohibited from Private trade and ‘native’ Bribes
- Court of Directors (Civil, Revenue, Military)
Pitts India Act 1784
- Separation in Commercial and political functions, system of double government
- Court of Directors – Commercial
- Board of Control – Political (civil & military)
- ‘British Possession in India’ & British Government get control over company
Charter Act 1833
- Napoleon Bonaparte’s started Continental System in Europe (it prohibited import of British goods into French allies in Europe) and British traders and merchants suffered for it
- They demanded a share in British trade in Asia and dissolve the monopoly of the East India Company..
- But in tea trade with China, company retained its monopoly.
- The company’s dividend was fixed at 10.5%
- Grant permission to the missionaries to India
- 1 lakh financial grant for Indian literature and the promotion of science
- Power of Board of Control further enlarged
- Regulations made by the councils of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta required to be laid before British Parliament
Charter Act 1833
- Governor General of India
- East India company became purely Administrative body
- Try to start open competition of Civil Service
- Restriction on European immigration and acquisition of property in India were lifted
- Law member was added to governor’s general council.
- Abolition of Slavery (1843)
Charter Act 1853
- Separation of Legislature & Executive function
- New Legislative Council
- Open Competition of selection of Civil Servant, Open for Indian (Macaulay Committee)
- Local representation in Central Legislature Council
- Provincial government in Madras, Bombay, Bengal and Agra
Government of India Act 1858
- Viceroy of India
- Board of Control and Court of Directors was abolished
- Secretary of State, a member of British cabinet
- 15 member Council of India, an advisory body
Councils Act of 1861
- Indians nominated in legislative council, Raja of Benaras, Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao
- Decentralization of Power to Mumbai and Madras
- New Legislative Council in Bengal, North-West Frontier and Punjub
- Portfolio system
- Viceroy can issue ordinances without legislative council during Emergency
Councils Act of 1892
- Power to discussing the Budget and question to executive
- Principle of representation was introduced
Councils Act of 1909 (Morley-Minto)
- Central Legislative Council member increased 16 to 60. (Provincial council member also increased )
- Provincial Council now get Non-official majority
- Members can ask Supplementary Questions, Move resolutions on budget
- Indian in Viceroy Executive council, Satyendra Prasad Sinha as a Law member
- Separate Electorate (Minto known as father of Communal Electorate)
- Separate representation of presidency corporations, chamber of commerce, universities
Government of India Act 1919
- Central & Provincial Subject
- Under provincial subject, Transferred Subject & Reserved Subject (Dyarchy)
- Bicameralism and Direct Election in Country
- Council of State & Legislative Assembly, legislative council was replaced
- 3 Indian member in Viceroy’s Executive council
- Extended the communal representation (Sikhs, Christians, Anglo–Indian, European)
- High Commissioner for India in London
- Central Public Service Commission 1926
- Separate Budget for Provinces
- Appointment of statutory body to inquire after 10 years
Government of India Act 1935
- 321 sections 10 schedules
- Council of State, the Upper house was permanent body and Federal legislature was lower house
- Abolished Dyarchy (simon commission rejected the diarchy)
- Provincial Autonomy
- Instrument of Instructions
- Bicameralism in 11 provinces
- Extended the franchise about 10% of total people
- Reserve Bank of India
- Federal, Provincial & Joint Public Service Commission
- Federal Court in 1937
Indian Independence Act 1947
- In May 1947, Mountbatten proposed a plan under which provinces to be declared as independent successor states and they allowed to choose to join constituent assembly or not. This was called the ‘Dickie Bird Plan’.
- Jawaharlal Nehru, opposed it saying that it would lead to balkanization of the country. So, the plan also called Plan Balkan.
- Viceroy came up with another plan, June 3 Plan. It was last plan for Indian independence. It is also called the Mountbatten Plan.
- Plan was accepted by Congress and Muslim League
- It was received royal assent on 18 July 1947.
Constituent assembly could enact, repeal, and amend any law. Thus it was made a legislative body too. When it worked a legislative body it was chaired by GV Malwankar till 1949.
Interim Government – 2nd Sept, 1946
- Vice President, Also in charge of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations: Jawaharlal Nehru
- Home Affairs, Information and Broadcasting: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (INC)
- Agriculture and Food: Rajendra Prasad (INC)
- Commerce: Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar (ML)
- Defence: Baldev Singh (INC)
- Finance: Liaquat Ali Khan (ML)
- Education and Arts: C Rajagopalachari (INC)
- Health: Ghazanfar Ali Khan (ML)
- Labour: Jagjivan Ram (INC)
- Law: Jogendra Nath Mandal (ML)
- Railways and Communications, Post and Air: Abdur Rab Nishtar (ML)
- Works, Mines and Power: C H Bhabha (INC)