16 Mahajanapadas

16 Mahajanapadas and their capitals taxila university gandhara kamboja

16 Mahajanapadas and their capitals taxila university gandhara kamboja

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The 16 mahajanapadas of that period as listed in Buddhist Pali Canon were

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Anga
Capital: Champa
Modern location: Munger and Bhagalpur, Bihar
  • Reference found in the Mahabharata and Atharva Veda
  • Bimbisara taken over Anga
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Magadha

Capital: Rajagriha
Modern location: Gaya and Patna
  • Magadha was semi-Brahmanical habitation.
  • Magadha and Anga was divided by river Champa.
  • Later it became a center of Jainism and Buddhist
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Kasi
Capital: Kasi
Modern Location: Banars
  • It got its name from rivers Varuna and Asi according to Matsya Purana.
  • Dhritarashtra once ruled over Kashi and Anga
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Vatsa
Capital: Kausambi
Modern Location: Allahabad
  • Vatsa is also known as Vamsa
  • Ruler Udayana made Buddhism a state religion.

Kosala

Capital: Sravasti
Modern Location: Eastern Uttar Pradesh ( Ayodhya)
  • Ayodhya was an important town in Kosala.
  • It was merged in the Magadha by the Magadha ruler, Ajatashatru.
  • Kosala also included the tribal republican territory of Sakyas of Kapilvastu.
16 Mahajanapadas and their capitals taxila university gandhara kamboja
Saurasena
Capital: Mathura
Modern Location: Western Uttar Pradesh
  • This place was a center of Krishna worship at the time of Megasthenes.
  • The most famous ruler was Avantiputra.
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Panchala
Capital: Ahichchatra and Kampliya
Modern Location: Western Uttar Pradesh
  • Later the nature of governance shifted from monarchy to republic.
  • Kanauj was an important town in this kingdom
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Kuru
Capital: Indraprastha
Modern Location: Thaneswar, Meerut and Southeastern Haryana
  • The area around Kurukshetra was apparently the site for Kuru Mahajanapada.
  • It moved to a republic form of governance.
Matsya
Capital: Viratnagar
Modern Location: Jaipur
  • It got its independence from the Chedi kingdom (ruled by King Sahaja) under the leadership of Virat Raja.
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Chedi
Capital: Sotthivati
Modern Location:  Yamuna and Narmada belt
  • This was cited in the Rigveda
  • It located in the present day Bundelkhand region.
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Avanti

Capital: Ujjaini or Mahismati.
Modern Location: Malwa and Madhya Pradesh
  • Avanti was significant in relation to the rise of Buddhism.
  • It was the most vulnerable of all the mahajanapadas and was ruled by many kingdoms
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Gandhara

Capital: Taxila
Modern Location: Rawalpindi
  • Gandhara are cited in the Atharva Veda
  • It was significant for international commercial activities.
Kamboja
Capital: Pooncha
Modern Location: Rajori and Hajra
  • It is situated in present day Kashmir and Hindukush.
  • Several literary sources mention that Kamboja was a republic.
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Ashmaka or Assaka
Capital: Pratisthan/ Paithan
Modern Location: Bank of Godavari
  • Brahamdatta was its most important ruler.
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Vajji
Capital: Vaishali
Modern Location: North Bihar
  • Vajji was the seat of a united republic of eight smaller kingdoms of which Lichchavis, Janatriks and Videhas were also members. 
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Malla
Capital: Kusinara
Modern Location: Deoria and Uttar Pradesh,  Gorakhpur region
  • Religion was Buddhism
  • Malla was a republic

Taxila University

  • Taxila University is the oldest university and was probably the first organized educational center of ancient India.
  • It is not clear who actually founded this university, although it was funded by almost all the great kingsand rulers of the ancient past.
  • It was a center of learning for logic, religion, medicine, mathematics, astrology, the Vedas, warfare and primitive science
  • Taxila was the capital of the Gandhara Kingdom, allowed students from all parts of India to be enrolled and education was free for all.
  • Only Chandalas were not allowed to study in this university.
  • Scholars like Nagarjuna, Panini, Chanakya, Prasanajit, Jeevka (son of Bimbisara) all came to thisplace to study before they became important personalities in Indian history.
  • Alexander taken some scholars from Taxila to Greece.
  • In BC, the Hun ruler, Toramana, attacked and demolished the university campus.
  • During that time, most of the records were burnt or destroyed.
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