March 7, 2019 Iranian (Persian) & Macedonian (Greek) Invasion By Sutirtha Datta Ancient India 0 Comments Contents Persian InventionCyrus (558 – 530 B.C)Darius I (522 – 486 B.C)Xerxes (465-456 B.C)Effects of Persian InvasionAlexander Invasion (327 BC)Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum)Effect of Alexander Invasion >>>>>>> >>>>>>> Persian Invention Cyrus (558 – 530 B.C) Cyrus the Great was the greatest conqueror of the Achaemenian Empire. He was the first conqueror who led an expedition and entered into India. He captured the Gandhara region. All Indian tribes to the west of the Indus river submitted to him and paid tribute. His son Cambyses had no time to pay attention towards India. >>>>>>> Darius I (522 – 486 B.C) Darius I, the grandson of Cyrus, conquered the Indus valley in 518 B.C. and annexed the Punjab and Sindh. This region became the 20th Satrapy of his empire. It was the most fertile and populous province of the Achaemenian Empire. Darius sent a naval expedition under Skylas to explore the Indus. >>>>>>> Xerxes (465-456 B.C) Xerxes utilized his Indian province to strengthen his position. He deployed Indian infantry and cavalry to Greece to fight his opponents. But they retreated after Xerxes faced a defeat in Greece. After this failure, the Achaemenians could not follow a forward policy in India. However, the Indian province was still under their control. Darius III enlisted Indian soldiers to fight against Alexander in 330 B.C. >>>>>>> Effects of Persian Invasion Impetus to Indo Iranian commerce & trade, which finally became the ground for Alexander’s invasion. Use of Kharoshti script bought by Iranian gain popularity in N-W India and some inscription of Ashoka (250 BC) are written in this language. Kharoshti script derived from Aramaic script, written from right to left. Influence of Persian art in India, Particularly monolithic pillars, and sculptures found on them along with inscriptions. >>>>>>> Battle of Hydaspes >>>>>>> Alexander Invasion (327 BC) After 2 centuries of Persian invasion, Alexander from Macedonia invaded India. Alexander conquered minor Asia along with Iraq & Iran and from Iran he marched into India Alexander conquered whole of Persia by defeating Darius 3 in battle of Arabela (330 BC). Herodotus, Father of history, wrote that fabulous wealth of India attracted Alexander and moreover his interest in Geographical enquiry and love of natural history urged him to invade India. Alexander believed that on eastern side of India lies continuation of the sea and hence by conquering India, he would conquer eastern boundary of the world. After conquest of Iran, he marched into India through Khyber pass 327 BC and crossed Indus in 326 BC. Ambhi, the ruler of taxila readily submitted to him but Porus whose kingdom lay between Jhelum & Chenab refused to submit to Alexander. Alexander stayed in India for 19 months. >>>>>>> Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum) Although Porus had a vast army & fought bravely, but he lost to Alexander. Alexander, impressed by the bravery of Indian prince reinstated him to his throne and made him his ally. Then he advanced as far as river Beas. Alexander wanted to move further but war weary, diseased, hot weather of India & 10 year of continuous fighting led to the refusal of Greek soldiers to move further. Refusal also came because of the enormous power of Nandas of Magadha Hence, Alexander divided his conquered territories into 3 Parts & placed them under 3 Greek governors. >>>>>>> Effect of Alexander Invasion 1st contact b/w Europe & India paved the way for increased trade & commerce Encouraged political unification of India under Mauryas The system of small independent states came to an end. >>>>>>> Add a Comment Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.