Arab & Turkish Invasions in India

turkish invasions arab invasion in india mahmud of ghazni Muhammad Ghori battle of tarain

Prophet Muhammad (570-632)

  • Prophet Muhammad is the founder of Islam.
  • He grew up in the deserts of Arabia.
  • In 613, Muhammad found himself receiving messages from Allah, and learned that he was a prophet in the same line as Moses and Jesus Christ.
  • His first converts were the Arabs.
  • Muhammad and his followers fled from Mecca to Medina in 622.
  • In 624, the Muslims won the Battle of Badr and was the first major battle in the Muslim conquest of Arabia.
  • In 630, Muhammad conquered his home town of Mecca
  • He died in June 632
  • After his death Muslims brock in two parts
  • Ali’s supporters came to be known as Shias (partisans), followers of Abu Bakr acquired the title of Sunnis in course of time.

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turkish invasions arab invasion in india mahmud of ghazni Muhammad Ghori battle of tarain

turkish invasions arab invasion in india battle of tarain

Rise and Spread of Islam

  • After the death of the Prophet the task of providing religious and political leadership to the Muslims passed on to the Caliphs
  • In a very short time, Islam carved out an empire extending from North Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, to Iran and India.
  • The word Caliph is derived from the Arabic word ‘Khalifa’, which means ‘deputy’
  • The policy of the Rashidun Caliphs was to continue Muhammad’s aggressive territorial expansion.
  • The first of these companions to be appointed Caliph was Abu Bakr
  • Abu Bakar was Muhammad’s father-in-law and had been the first man after Muhammad to convert to Islam.
  • Abu-Bakr began the invasion of the two major super powers of the region, the Byzantine Empire of the Mediterranean, and the Sassanid Empire of Persia.
  • Abu Bakr died in 634 and leadership passed to the next Caliph Umar
  • During the Caliphate of Umar, Muslim armies conquered almost the entire Middle East.

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turkish invasions arab invasion in india  battle of tarain

Arab Invasion in India

Muhammad bin Qasim (712)

  • He was a general of the Umayyad caliphate
  • Al-Hajjajj, the Governor of Iraq sent Muhammad bin Qasim to India
  • In 712, Battle of Rewar was fought between Muhammad bin Qasim and Dahar the ruler of Sind.
  • Dahar was defeated.
  • Sind and Multan was captured by Muhammad bin Qasim with the permission of Caliph Walid
  • This military conquest is mentioned in the Chachnama
  • Muhammad bin Qasim called Multan as ‘The City of Gold’ 
  • Jizya was imposed on non-Muslims. 
  • For more than 150 years, Sind and Multan remained as the part of the Caliph’s Empire. 

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Effects of Arab Conquest

  • The subjugation of Sind made way for Islam into India.
  • The art of administration, astronomy, music, painting, medicine and architecture were learnt by Arabs from our land, and they spread astronomy, Indian Philosophy, and numerals to Europe.

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turkish invasions arab invasion in india mahmud of ghazni Muhammad Ghori battle of tarain

Turkish Invasions in India

Subuktagin (977–98)

  • Hindu king, Jayapala invaded Ghazni in alliance with the son of the former governor of Ghazni
  • But they had to suffer defeat and Subuktagin succeeded in forcing them into a humiliating treaty.
  • Subuktagin conquered a large territory, covered most Central Persia, and had its eastern boundary at the Indus.
  • His capital was at Ghazni to the south of Kabul.

 

Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030)

  • Mahmud of Ghazni was the first Turkish to invade India
  • In 1000, he first invaded modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and defeated the Hindu Shahi ruler Jayapala in the Battle of Waihind.
  • The significant invasion in Hindustan was against the Shiva temple of Somnath in 1025
  • He patronised  scholars like Firdausi writer of Shah Namah 1010 and Alberuni .
  • Until 1027, Mahmud launched a total of 17 campaigns of this sort and captured places as far distant as Kanauj and Saurashtra.

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turkish invasions arab invasion in india mahmud of ghazni Muhammad Ghori battle of tarain

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Muhammad of Ghori (1173–1206)

  • Muhammad of Ghori was the third Muslim ruler who invaded India.
  • He first invaded India in 1176
  • He captured the fortress of Bhatinda in 1190
  • Muhammad of Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj in the first Battle of Tarain in 1191
  • In the 2nd battle of Train in 1192, the joined forces of the Rajput rulers under Prithviraj were defeated by Muhammad of Ghori.
  • The Turkish rule began for the first time in Indian history with end The Second Battle of Tarain.
  • In 1194, Ghori defeated Jaichand, the ruler of Kannauj of the Gahadavalas dynasty in Battle of Chandwar.
  • Qutb ud din Aibak was appointed as the commander by Muhammad of Ghori 
  • Muhammad of Ghori made Delhi as the capital.
  • Muhammad bin Baktiyar Khilji, one of the commanders of Muhammad of Ghori destroyed Vikramasila in 1202 and Nalanda Universities in 1203.

turkish invasions arab invasion in india mahmud of ghazni Muhammad Ghori battle of tarain

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