Nawabs of Bengal – Battle of Plassey & Battle of Buxar

thr Battle of Plassey

  • From 1717 three successive Islamic dynasties – Nasiri, Afshar and Najafi – ruled what was then known as Bengal.


battle of plassey battle of buxar
Hazarduari Palace, Murshidabad


Nasiri Dynasty (1717-40)

Murshid Quli Khan

  • Murshid Quli Khan was born in a Hindu Brahmin family in the Deccan Plateau.
  • Aurangzeb sent him to Bengal as the divan in 1700.
  • Aurangzeb gave him permission to rename the city Murshidabad.
  • In 1717, Murshid Quli Khan was appointed as the Nawab Nazim of Murshidabad by Farrukhsiyar.
  • Murshid Quli Khan changed the Jagirdari system to the mal jasmani, which would later transform into the zamindari system.
  • Murshid Quli Khan maintained strict control over East India Company from abusing the privileges granted to the company
    • Mughal Farman of 1691 by Aurangzeb
    • Mughal Farman of 1717 by Farukh Siyar


battle of plassey battle of buxar

Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan

  • He was son-in-law of Murshid Quli Khan.
  • His successor was Sarfaraz Khan.



Nizamat Imambara
Nizamat Imambara


Afshar Dynasty (1740-57)

Alivardi Khan

  • Shuja-ud-Din promoted Muhammad Ali to Faujdar of Rajmahal and entitled him as Alivardi Khan.
  • In 1740, in the Battle of Giria, Alivardi Khan defeated and killed Sarfaraz Khan.
  • Alivardi Khan also used the title Nizam.
  • He is known to have introduced artillery on large movable platforms, which were driven by oxen.
  • At the Battle of Burdwan in 1747, Alivardi Khan defeated Maratha forces.


Siraj ud Daulah

  • His full name was Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah.
  • Siraj ud Daulah becames Nabab in April 1756.
  • He was the last independent Nawab of Bengal.
  • His charges against the company were mainly threefold.
    • They strengthened the fortification around the Fort William without any intimation and approval
    • Abused the trade privileges, which caused heavy loss of customs duties.
    • Company gave shelter to some of his officers who were against Nabab.
  • Siraj ud Daulah captured Kolkata and renamed as Alinagar from the British in June 1756.
  • Black Hole of Calcutta was a small prison in Fort William where troops of Siraj ud-Daulah held British prisoners of war for one fatal night on 20 June 1756.
  • Feb 1757 the Nawab’s men were difited by a small English force in a night attack under Robert Clive.
  • This  incident forced Siraj ud Daulah to come to under Treaty of Alinagar. 
  • The treaty was violated by the conquest of Chandranagore (French), by the British in March 1757.
  • A conspiracy was started by Mir Jafar, Rai Durlabh, Yar Lutuf Khan and Omichund (Amir Chand), Jagat Seth, Krishna Chandra, and several officers in the army.


battle of plassey


Battle of Plassey

  • Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies.
  • The battle fought at Plassey, Murshidabad in Bengal on 23 June 1757, on the banks of the Hooghly River.
  • Siraj-ud-Daulah was executed on 2 July 1757 by Mohammad Ali Beg under orders from Mir Meerun, son of Mir Jafar in Namak Haram Deorhi.
  • Commanders and leaders in The Battle of Plassey
    • Robert Clive, Major Kilpatrick, Major Grant, Major Eyre Coote, Captain Gaupp
    • Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, Diwan Mohanlal, Mir Madan, Mir Jafar Ali Khan (defector), Yar Lutuf Khan (defector), Rai Durlabh (defector), Monsieur Sinfray (France)




battle of plassey battle of buxar

Najafi Dynasty

Mir Jafar (1757 – 1760 & 1763 – 1765)

  • 1st Najafi Nawab of Bengal with support from the British East India Company.
  • Mir Jafar granted the right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and the zamindari of the 24 Parganas to the British.
  • He also paid them a sum of Rs 17.7 million.
  • Reign of Mir Jafar saw the beginning of the drain of wealth from India to Britain.
  • He made futile efforts to replace the English by the Dutch.
  • The Dutch were defeated by the English in Battle of Chinsurah, 1759.



Mir Qasim (1760-63)

  • Mir Qasim granted the zamindari of Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagong to the British officials.
  • He transferred his capital from Murshidabad to Monger in 1762.
  • Mir Qasim abolished all duties on internal trade against British wishes, to protect the Indian traders in 1763.


battle of buxar


Battle of Buxar

  • Battle of Buxar (21 Oct, 1764) was fought between the British and the 3 allies.
    • Mir Qasim
    • Shuja-ud-daula of Awadh
    • Shah Alam II
  • This battle ended in the defeat of the allies by the British forces under Major Hector Munro.
  • Buxar is a “small fortified town” in Bihar.
  • The Battle of Buxar was brought to an end by the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765.



The Treaty of Allahabad

  • Robert Clive concluded two important treaties at Allahabad on 12 Aug 1765 with
    • Nawab of Awadh
    • Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II
  • Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula agreed to surrender Allahabad and Kara to Emperor Shah Alam II.
  • Shah Alam II agreed to granting farman of diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company in lieu of an annual payment of Rs 26 lakh.
  • Military defence, police, and administration of justice power of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa went to East India Company.



Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)

  • Robert Clive introduced the dual system of government in Bengal.
  • Rule of the two, Company and the Nawab.
  • Collecting revenues and nizamat (police and judicial functions) came under Company power.
  • Company exercised diwani rights as diwan and nizamat rights through its right to nominate the deputy subahdar.
  • Dual system led to an administrative breakdown and proved disastrous for the people of Bengal.


Najm-ud-daula (1765-72)

  • Najm, son of Mir Jafar, was made the nawab in 1765.
  • He remained a puppet in the hands of the British during the period of ‘Dual System of Government’.
  • In 1772, he was pensioned off when the Company took over the direct charge of Bengal.


en English

You cannot copy content of this page

Mock Tests