- From 1717 three successive Islamic dynasties – Nasiri, Afshar and Najafi – ruled what was then known as Bengal.
Nasiri Dynasty (1717-40)
Murshid Quli Khan
- Born a Hindu Brahmin in the Deccan Plateau
- Aurangzeb sent him to Bengal as the divan in 1700
- In 1717, he was appointed as the Nawab Nazim of Murshidabad by Farrukhsiyar.
- he changed the jagirdari system to the mal jasmani, which would later transform into the zamindari system
- Aurangzeb gave him permission to rename the city Murshidabad
- Maintained strict control over East India Company from abusing the privileges granted to the company by the Mughal farmans of 1691 (Aurangzeb’s) and 1717 (Farukh Siyar’s).
Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan
- He was son-in-law of Murshid Quli Khan
- His successor was Sarfaraz Khan
Afshar Dynasty (1740-57)
- Shuja-ud-Din promoted Muhammad Ali to Faujdar of Rajmahal and entitled him as Alivardi Khan
- 1740 in the Battle of Giria, he defeated and killed Sarfaraz Khan
- he also used titles Nizam
- He is known to have introduced artillery on large movable platforms, which were driven by oxen.
- At the Battle of Burdwan, he defeated Maratha forces, in 1747
Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah
- He became Nabab in April 1756
- His charges against the company were mainly threefold.
- they strengthened the fortification around the Fort William without any intimation and approval
- abused the trade privileges granted to them by the Mughal rulers, which caused heavy loss of customs duties for the government
- they gave shelter to some of his officers who were against Nabab
- Captured Kolkata and renamed as Alinagar from the British in June 1756
- Black Hole of Calcutta was a small prison in Fort William where troops of Siraj ud-Daulah held British prisoners of war for one fatal night on 20 June 1756.
- February 1757 the Nawab’s men were worsted by a small English force in a night attack under Robert Clive.
- This impelled the Nawab to come to under Treaty of Alinagar establish peace with the English
- The treaty was violated by the conquest of Chandranagore(French), by the British in March,1757.
- A conspiracy was started by Mir Jafar, Rai Durlabh, Yar Lutuf Khan and Omichund (Amir Chand), Jagat Seth, Krishna Chandra, and several officers in the army.
The Battle of Plassey
- The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757
- Siraj-ud-Daulah was executed on 2 July 1757 by Mohammad Ali Beg under orders from Mir Meerun, son of Mir Jafar in Namak Haram Deorhi
- Commanders and leaders
- Robert Clive, Major Kilpatrick, Major Grant, Major Eyre Coote, Captain Gaupp
- Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, Diwan Mohanlal, Mir Madan, Mir Jafar Ali Khan (defector), Yar Lutuf Khan (defector), Rai Durlabh (defector), Monsieur Sinfray (France)
Mir Jafar Ali Khan ( 1757 – 1760 and 1763 – 1765)
- 1st Najafi Nawab of Bengal with support from the British East India Company.
- He granted the right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and the zamindari of the 24 Parganas to the British, besides paying them a sum of Rs 17.7 million
- His reign saw the beginning of the drain of wealth from India to Britain
- He made futile efforts to replace the English by the Dutch, but the Dutch were defeated by the English in Battle of Chinsurah 1759.
Mir Qasim (1760-63)
- He granted the zamindari of Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagong to the British officials
- He transferred his capital from Murshidabad to Monger (1762)
- Abolished all duties on internal trade against British wishes in order to protect the Indian traders (1763)
- Battle of Buxar (October 22, 1764) was fought between the British and the 3 allies Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-daula of Awadh and Shah Alam Il
- This battle ended in the defeat of the allies by the British forces under Major Hector Munro.
The Treaty of Allahabad
- Robert Clive concluded two important treaties at Allahabad in August 1765
- with Nawab of Awadh
- with the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II
- Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula agreed to surrender Allahabad and Kara to Emperor Shah Alam II;
- Shah Alam II agreed to granting farman of diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company in lieu of an annual payment of Rs 26 lakh
- military defence, police, and administration of justice power went to East India Company
Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)
- Robert Clive introduced the dual system of government in Bengal
- Rule of the two Company and the Nawab
- Collecting revenues and nizamat (police and judicial functions) came under Company
- Company exercised diwani rights as diwan and nizamat rights through its right to nominate the deputy subahdar
- Dual system led to an administrative breakdown and proved disastrous for the people of Bengal.
- Najm, son of Mir Jafar, was made the nawab in 1765 and remained a puppet in the hands of the British during the period of ‘Dual System of Government’.
- In 1772, he was pensioned off when the Company took over the direct charge of Bengal.