buddhism beliefs four noble truths Buddhist Texts life of buddha Gautam Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha at Lumbini near Kapilavastu (in present Nepal) in 563 BC. He was the son of Suddhodhana and Mahamaya. Suddhodhana was the chief of the Sakya clan (gana). Due to this, the Gautam Buddha was also known as ‘Sakyamuni’. His mother died either giving birth to him or after seven days. Siddhartha was brought up by his maternal aunt, Prajapati Gautami. This gave him the name ‘Gautama’. >>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> Gautam Buddha was married to Yashodhara and had a son, Rahula. He left his home at the age of 29 to become an ascetic. This event is called Mahabhishkramana. The idea of renunciation occurred to the Buddha after he saw four different states of man – sick man, old man, a corpse and an ascetic. Gautam Buddha wandered for seven years and at the age of 35 attained enlightenment at Uruvela while meditating under a banyan tree on the banks of the river Niranjana. This tree came to be known as ‘Bodhi tree’ and the place became Bodh Gaya (in Bihar). Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath near Varanasi. This event is called Dharmachakra Pravartana / Dhammachakkappavattana. Gautam Buddha died in 483 BC under a Sal tree in Kushinagar (in UP). This event is called Mahaparinirvana. The term ‘Buddha’ means ‘enlightened one’. Important contemporaries of the Buddha were Mahavira Jaina, Kings Prasenjit, Bimbisara and Ajatasatru. >>>>>>>>>> Three Jewels – Triratnas Buddha (the enlightened) Dhamma (doctrine) Sangha (order)
>>>>>>>>>> Four Noble truths (Arya Satya) Dukkha (the world is full of sorrow) Dukkha Samuddaya (that causes the sorrow) Dukkha Nirodha (sorrow can be stopped) Dukkha Nirodhagamini-pratipada (the path leading to the cessation of sorrow) The ultimate aim of life is to attain Nirvana, which means freedom, from further birth and death. Nirvana is the eternal state of peace and bliss or liberation from the cycle of birth and death Gautam Buddha had summarized the whole process in three words Seela (Right conduct), Samadhi (Right concentration) Prajna (Right knowledge). According to Gautam Buddha, Seela and Samadhi lead to Prajna, which is the direct cause of nirvana. Gautam Buddha advocated “The Middle Path” in which extremes are avoided. Gautam Buddha visited to the Deer Park (modern Sarnath), Kasi after his enlightenment and gave his first Sermon (lecture). His first sermon was known as “Set in Motion, the Wheel of Law”. >>>>>>>> >>>>>>> Buddhist Councils 1st Council Conducted under the patronage of King Ajatasatru of Haryanka dynasty. It was held in 483 BC just after Buddha’s demise. It was held in Sattapani caves (Sattaparnaguha) in Rajagriha . A monk who presided over the first council was Mahakassapa. The main objective was to preserve the Buddha’s teachings. At this council, Ananda composed the Suttapitaka (Buddha’s Teachings) Mahakassapa composed the Vinaypitaka (monastic code). >>>>>>>>>> 2nd Council Conducted under the patronage of King Kalasoka of Sisunaga dynasty. It was held in 383 BC, 100 years after the Buddha’s death. It was held at Vaishali. 2nd council was presided over by Sabakami. The main objective was to discuss ten disputed points under the Vinaypitaka. Major split happened here – two groups that would later evolve into Theravada and Mahayana. The first group was called Thera (meaning Elder in Pali). They wanted to preserve the teachings of Gautam Buddha in the original spirit. The other group called Mahasanghika (Great Community) interpreted the Buddha’s teachings more liberally. >>>>>>>>>> 3rd Council Conducted under the patronage of Emperor Ashoka of Maurya dynasty. It was held in 250 BC at Pataliputra. Mogaliputta Tissa presided over the council. Main objective was to purify Buddhism from opportunistic factions and corruption in the Sangha. The Abhidhamma Pitaka was composed here making the almost completion of the modern Pali Tipitaka. Buddhist missionaries were sent to other countries. Buddhism preached by Emperor Ashoka was Hinayana. >>>>>>>>>> 4th Council Conducted under the patronage of King Kanishka of Kushan dynasty. It was held in the 1st century AD at Kundalvana in Kashmir. It was presided over by Vasumitra and Ashvaghosha. All deliberations were conducted in Sanskrit. Here, Abhidhamma texts were translated from Prakrit to Sanskrit. This council resulted in the division of Buddhism into two sects namely Mahayana (the Greater Vehicle) Hinayana (the Lesser Vehicle) Mahayana sect believed in idol worship, rituals and Boddhisattvas. They regarded the Gautam Buddha as God. Hinayana continued the original teachings and practices of the Gautam Buddha. They adhere to the scriptures written in Pali while the Mahayana includes Sanskrit scriptures as well.
>>>>>>> >>>>>>> Buddhist Texts The most important sources of Buddhism are the Tripitakas / Tipitakas written in Pali language. They are: Sutta Pitaka Vinaya Pitaka Abhidhamma Pitaka Dhammapada A part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka. It contains a collection of the sayings of Gautam Buddha in verse form. Milinda Panha Literal meaning in Pali – Questions of Milinda. It was written around 100 BC. It contains a dialogue between the Indo-Greek King Menander I or Milinda of Bactria and sage Nagasena Milinda asks questions on Buddhism to the sage. Buddhacharita It is an epic poem composed in Sanskrit by Ashvaghosha in early 2nd century AD. It is about the life of the Gautam Buddha. >>>>>>>>>> Famous Monks at the time of Gautam Buddha Ananda – constant companion of Buddha and most devoted disciple Anurddha – master of right mindfulness Mahakassapa – president of Buddhist council held at Rajagriha Moggallana – he had the greatest super natural powers Sariputta – possessed the profound insight into the dhamma Upali – master of Vinaya >>>>>>>>>> Famous Buddhist Scholars Ashvagosha – contemporary of Kanishka, poet, dramatist, musician Nagarjuna – friend and contemporary of Satavahana kings Assanga and Vasubandhu > “Abhidaramakosa” encyclopedia of Buddhism – brothers Buddhagosha – pali scholar “Visuddhimaga” > post- tripitaka literature Dinnaga – founder of Buddhist logic Dharmakirti – philosophical thinker and dialectician >>>>>>>>>> Hinayana Buddhism The Oldest school – Sthaviravada (Theravada in Pali) Sanskrit – sarvastivada or doctrine which maintains the existence of all things , physical as well as mental From sarvastivada or vaibhasika branched off another school – Sautantrika >> more critical in outlook Pali – language of masses used by Hinayana Buddhists Ashoka patronised Hinayanism >>>>>>>>>> Mahayana Buddhism Idol worship Madhyamika – Nagarjuna – midway between uncompromising realism of Hinayanism and idealism of Yogacharya Yogacharya – Maitreyanatha – rejected the realism of Hinayanism and maintained absolute idealism Sanskrit was used by Mahayana Buddhists Chief philosophical schools – Madhyamika, Yogachara Kanishka patronised Mahayanism later Harsha supported it Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pali), is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita. Guru Padma Samvaba called as 2nd Buddha
>>>>>>>> Drepung Gomang Monastery, China >>>>>>>> Famous Buddhist Monasteries in India Namgyal Monastery Located in the Dharamshala district of Himachal Pradesh. Namgyal Monastery is associated with the Dalai Lamas Its is one of the major tourist attraction along with the lakes, Kangra valley and McLeodGanj. >>>>>>>>>> Thikse Monastery Located near the Leh in the Indus valley of Ladakh. >>>>>>>>>> Hemis Monastery Located in Ladakh and has rich collection of ancient remnants. Famous Hemis gompa festival is celebrated here every year with many attractions like Mask Dances of Ladakh and tantric worship from Monks. >>>>>>>>>> Shashur Monastery Located in the Lahaul valley of Spiti in Himachal Pradesh. Shashur Monastery is one of the ancient monastery and covered with blue pines around it. >>>>>>>>>> Mindrolling Monastery Located in the Clement Town near to Rajaji National Park in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. It has one of incredibly the tallest statue of Lord Buddha with an height of 107 ft and one of the tallest stupa in India. >>>>>>>>>> Ghum Monastery Situated at the hill regions of Eastern Himalaya range in Darjeeling, West Bengal. Ghum Monastery is known as Yogachoeling Gompa is the oldest Tibetan Buddhist monastery
>>>>>>>>>> Rumtek Monastery located at the hilltop of Gangtok, Sikkim. Rumtek Monastery is one of the largest in the state and surrounding with beautiful area. >>>>>>>>>> Tawang Monastery The Largest Monastery in India, located in the Tawang Town of Arunachal Pradesh Tawang Monastery also known in Tibetan as Galden Namgey Lhatse The Largest Buddhist monastery in India and 2nd largest in world Tawang also gives you one of the top 51 reason to visit north-east India. >>>>>>>>>