Chalukya Dynasty and Pallava Dynasty

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Chalukya Dynasty

  • There were three distinct but related Chalukya dynasties.
  • Chalukyas of Badami
    • The Vakatakas were followed by the Chalukyas of Badami.
    • They played a prominent role in the history of south India for about two centuries
    • Chalukya dynasty of Badami started rule in the beginning of 6th century
    • They set up their kingdom in western Deccan
    • Their capital was at Vatapi (modern Badami in Karnataka).
  • Eastern Chalukya Dynasty
    • Emerged after the death of Pulakesin II in Eastern Deccan with capital at Vengi.
    • They ruled till the 11th century.
  • Western Chalukya Dynasty
    • Descendants of the Badami Chalukya
    • They emerged in the late 10th century and ruled from Kalyani (modern day Basavakanlyan).

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pallava dynasty chalukya dynasty chalukyas
Mallikarjuna and Kashivishwanatha temples, Pattadakal

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Rulers of Chalukys of Badami

  • Jayasimha was the first ruler of the Chalukya dynasty.

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Pulakesin I (543 – 566)

  • He founded the empire with the capital at Vatapi.
  • Pulakesin I performed Ashwamedha.

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Kirtivarman I (566– 559)

  • He was the son of Pulakesin I.
  • Kirtivarman I conquered Konkan and northern Kerala.

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Mangalesha (597 – 609)

  • Brother of Kirtivarman I.
  • He conquered the Kadambas and the Gangas.
  • He was killed by his nephew and son of Kirtivarman, Pulakesin II.

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Pulakesin II (609 – 642)

  • Pulakesin II was the greatest king of Chalukya dynasty.
  • Extended the Chalukyas rule to most parts of the Deccan.
  • Information about Pulakesin II is obtained from the Aihole inscription dated 634.
  • This poetic inscription was written by his court poet Ravikirti in Sanskrit language using the Kannada script.
  • Hiuen Tsang visited his kingdom. He has praised Pulakesin II as a good and authoritative king.
  • Though a Hindu, he was tolerant of Buddhism and Jainism.
  • Pulakesin II is famous for stopping king Harsha  on banks of Narmada, while he was trying to conquer southern parts of the country.
  • He had defeated the Pallava king Mahendravarman I but was defeated and killed by Mahendravarman’s son and successor Narasimhavarman I
  • For the next 13 years, Badami remained under Pallava control.
  • Pulakesin II received a Persian mission as depicted in an Ajanta cave painting.
  • He maintained diplomatic relations with the King of Persia Khusru II.

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Vikramaditya I (655 – 680)

  • Vikramaditya I was the son of Pulakesin II
  • He plundered Kanchi, the capital of the Pallavas.

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Vikramaditya II (733 – 744)

  • He is famous for repelling the Arab invention in south Gujrat.

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Kirtivarman II (744 – 755)

  • Last of the Chalukya rulers.
  • He was defeated by the Rashtrakuta king, Dantidurga.

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Chalukya Art & Architecture

  • Chalukya dynasty developed Deccan or Vesara style of temple building.
  • They mostly used locally found reddish-golden sandstone in their monuments.
  • Most of the temples were concentrated in Aihole, Badami, Pattadakal and Mahakuta in modern Karnataka.
  • Virupaksha Temple and Bhutanatha group of temples at Badami are also from this period.
  • Much of the paintings and sculpture of the Ajanta and Ellora caves were completed during period of Chalukya dynasty.

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Chalukya dynasty Pallava dynasty

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Pallava Dynasty

Origins

  • There are several theories propounded by historians about Pallava dynasty
  • Some historians say they are a branch of the Pahlavas of the Parthians who moved to the South.
  • Some say they are an indigenous dynasty that arose within the Southern region and were a mix of various tribes.
  • Some experts believe them to be of Naga origin who first settled around the Tondaimandalam region near Madras.
  • Another theory says that they are descendent from a Chola prince and a Naga princess of Manipallavam.
  • Some others are of the opinion that the Pallavas were feudatories of the Satavahanas.
  • The first Pallava kings ruled during the beginning of the 4th century AD.
  • By the 7th century AD, there were three kingdoms in southern India vying for supremacy namely the Chalukya of Badami, the Pandyas of Madurai and the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.

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Extent

  • The Pallava dynasty capital was Kanchipuram.
  • Their territories at the height of their powers extended from northern part of Andhra Pradesh to River Kaveri in the South.
  • During the seventh century, the Cholas were reduced to a marginal state by the authority of the Pallavas.

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Pallava Dynasty Rulers

Sivaskanda Varman

  • Sivaskanda Varman was the greatest among the early rulers of Pallava dynasty.
  • He ruled in the beginning of the 4th century AD.
  • He Performed Ashwamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.

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Simhavishnu (575 – 600)

  • Simhavishnu was the first important ruler of Pallava dynasty.
  • He also known as Simhavarman.
  • He followed Vaishnavism as religion.
  • Simhavishnu included Sri Lanka in his kingdom.
  • He defeated the contemporary Tamil Kalabhras ruler.
  • Pallava dynasty history assumes a definite character from this ruler onward.

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Mahendravarman (600 – 630)

  • Succeeded Simhavishnu who was his father.
  • Mahendravarman was a poet and composed Vichitrachita and Mahavilasa Prahasana.
  • He introduced rock cut temple architecture.
  • The Pallavas and Chalukyas rivalry began in his time.
  • He had ongoing rivalry and battles with Pulakesin II of Chalukya dynasty.
  • Mahendravarman died in battle with the Chalukyas. He was an able and efficient ruler.

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pallava art and architecture pulakesin narasimhavarman
Shore temple, Mamallapuram

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Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668)

  • Narasimhavarman was the son and successor of Mahendravarman.
  • He is considered as the greatest king of the Pallava dynasty.
  • He also called as Narasimhavarman Mahamalla/Mamalla.
  • Narasimhavarman defeated and killed Pulakesin II in 642 AD.
  • He took control of Vatapi, the Chalukya capital and assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
  • He also vanquished the Cholas, Cheras and the Pandyas.
  • Narasimhavarman sent a naval expedition to Sri Lanka and reinstated the Sinhalese Prince Manivarma.
  • He founded the city of Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram which is named after him.
  • Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallava kingdom during his reign in about 640 AD
  • Hiuen Tsang also says that, there was an abundance of agricultural products.
  • Great Nayannar saints like Appar, Tirugnanasambandar and Siruthondar lived during his reign.
  • Narasimhavarman was succeeded by his son Mahendravarman II.

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Narsimhavarman II (695-722)

  • Narsimhavarman II was also known as Rajasimha.
  • His rule was peaceful and offered ample opportunities for development of arts.
  • Dandin was a court poet of Rajasimha.
  • He constructed Shore temple at Mamallapuram and Kailasanatha at Kanchipuram.
  • Narsimhavarman II sent embassies to China.
  • Maritime trade flourished during his reign.

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Later Rulers

  • Parameshwaravarman II and Nandivarman II were the successors
  • Pallava rule lasted till 9th century A.D.
  • Aparajita (899 – 903 AD) was the last Pallava ruler was defeated by Aditya I of Chola dynasty.

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Kalabhra Uprising

  • Pallavas, Chalukyas & Kadambas – All 3 were brahaman dynasties.
  • They followed Brahamanism with vedic sacrifices.
  • They made numerous land grants to Brahamanas.
  • Kalbhras patronised Buddhism & Buddhist monasteries.
  • The Kalabhras were protesting against the numerous land grants (Brahamadeya) to Brahmanas made by the Brahmanic rulers of the three dynasties.
  • The Kalabhra uprising was crushed by the Pandyas, Chalukyas and the Pallavas jointly.

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