Delhi Sultanate

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Important Rulers of Delhi Sultanate

  • Mamluk / Slave / Ilbari (1206-90) – 84 years
    • Aibak
    • Iltutmish
    • Razia
    • Balban
    • Kaiqubad
  • Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320) – 30 years
    • Jalaluddin
    • Alauddin
    • Mubarak
    • Khusru
  • Tughluqs Dynasty (1320-1414) – 94 years
    • Ghiyasuddin
    • Muhammad bin
    • Firuz Shah
    • Mahmud
  • Sayyids (1414-51) – 37 years
    • Khizr Khan
    • Alam Shah
  • Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526) – 75 years
    • Bahlul
    • Sikandar
    • Ibrahim

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Iltutmish Qutb ud din Aibak Mamluk Slave Dynasty

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Mamluk or Slave Dynasty

Qutb ud din Aibak (1206-10)

  • Muhammad of Ghori appointed Qutb ud-din Aibak as his commander
  • Qutb ud din aibak is the founder of the Mamaluk Dynasty. 
  • In Quranic term Mamaluk means slave.
  • He prevented the Shah of Khwarizm from occupying Ghazni and Delhi.
  • Qutb ud din aibak also built Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque at Ajmer.
  • He built Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, to the north-east of minar in 1198
  • He patronized Hassan Nizami and Fakhre Mudir.
  • Muslim writers call Aibak Lakh Baksh or giver of lakhs because he gave liberal donations to them.
  • He patronised Hasan Nizami – Taj-ul-Massir, Fakh-ul-din – Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Iltutmish (1211-36)

  • Iltutmish was sold as slave to Qutb-ud-din-Aibak and later become son-in-law of Aibak.
  • He killed Aram Shah, the son of Aibak and became king in 1211
  • Iltutmish was the real founder of Turkish Kingdom in India.
  • He captured Bihar and Bengal
  • Iltutmish put down the revolt of Khilji Maliks of Bengal in 1230
  • His authority recognised by Caliph of Baghdad in 1229, he received the mansur (letter of recognition)
  • Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziah as his successor before his death. 
  • He set up Iqtas under Iqtadars or Muqtis.
  • Their duties were to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their Iqtas
  • Iltutmish’s army was maintained by Chahalgani or Chalisa or ‘A Group of Forty’.
  • He was the first Turkish ruler to introduce Arabic coinage.
  • Tanka – silver coin, an Arabic inscription on it and Jital – Copper coin
  • He patronised Minhas-us-siraj – writer of Tahaqqat-i-Nasuri.

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delhi sultanate slave dynasty

Qutub Minar

  • Qutb ud din aibak  began the construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi  in memory of sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki in 1192
  • Iltutmish completed the construction
  • It is the tallest minaret in the world made up of bricks.
  • Its design is based on the Minaret of Jam, Afghanistan
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq replaced the damaged storey, and added one more.
  • Sher Shah Suri also added an entrance to this tower

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Rukn-ud-din (April-Nov, 1236)

  • Eldest son of Iltutmish who was put on the throne by nobles
  • Another son of Iltutmish rebelled in Avadh Ruknud-din marched out of the capital to suppress the rebellion.
  • This gave Raziya the opportunity to seize the throne and put her brother to death.

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Sultana Razia (1236-40)

  • Raziah was the 1st woman only ruler of medieval India.
  • She successfully restored the prestige of the Turkish Kingdom in India.
  • Her rule ended in 1240 because of a conspiracy by the Turkish nobles.
  • The fall of Raziya made the clique of Turkish nobles dominant in the court, and they started a scramble for supremacy

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Bahram Shah (1240-42)

  • Malik naib or naib-i-mamlakat, who was intended to be the de-facto ruler while the Sultan would only be a de jure ruler.
  • When Bahram’s attempts to assert his authority failed, he was taken captive and put to death

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Alaud-din Masud (1242-46)

  • Masud, son of Rukn-ud-din, was made the next Sultan
  • Balban conspired with Nasirud-din Mahmud’s mother, Malik- i-Jahan, to overthrow Masud

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Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (1246-64)

  • He had no alternative but to leave the administration in Balban’s hands.
  • In 1249 the Sultan married Balban’s daughter and made him the malik naib (regent).
  • Balban was also awarded the title of Ulugh (Great) Khan
  • According to Isami’s Futuh-us-Salatin, Balban later poisoned Nasir-uddin and captured the throne

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delhi sultanate Qutb ud din Aibak
Adhai Din ka Jhonpra, Ajmer

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Balban (1265-87)

  • Balban believed in the Divine Right Theory of Kingship (representative of God on earth)
  • He was one of the most notable of the forty Turkic nobles of Delhi, or the Chalissa
  • Balban destroyed the ‘Group of Forty’
  • He started Iranian method Sijda and Paibos (kissing his feet in the court)  to the court in India.
  • He also introduced the Persian festival Navroz (meaning New year).
  • Balban himself called the Niyabat-i-Khudai.
  • He introduced a well-organized spy system.
  • A separate military department called Diwan-i-arz was established.
  • Many military posts were set up at Bhojapur, Patiali, Kampil and Jalali
  • Balban suppressed Tughril Khan, who declared his independence and recovered Bengal.
  • He patronized Amir Khusrau who is called as the ‘Parrot of India’ and Amir Hasan.

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Kaiqubad

  • Grandson of Balban succeeded him
  • He was soon struck with paralysis and was finally killed by the Khalji maliks

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Chalisa or Chalgani

  • Aafter ascending to the throne Iltutmish realised that Turkish nobles were not trustworthy
  • They could conspire against sultan to overthrow his rule.
  • Therefore, Iltutmish had a group of faithful slaves to protect him.
  • This group was known as Amir-i-Chahalgani or the Forty.
  • They were assigned important posts and became very influential and powerful as time passed.
  • After Iltutmish’s death, they became notorious and intrigued against nearly all his successors.
  • They wanted to keep every new ruler under their thumb in order to keep on enjoying the full taste of power
  • Balban, one among of the Forty, assumed power
  • He fully realised that he could not become the real ruler in presence of other members of the group.
  • He carefully made a plan and started to eliminate them one by one, not sparing even his cousin.
  • With the elimination of the Forty, the role of the Turkish slaves in the Indian politics came to an end

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Khilji Dynasty

Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-96)

  • Jalaluddin Khilji was the founder of Khilji Dynasty.
  • He was the first sultan to have a kind attitude towards Hindus
  • Jalaluddin Khilji avoided harsh punishments, even to those who revolted against him
  • He was also called as “Clemency Jalal-uddin” as he followed peace and wanted to rule without violence.
  • Alauddin khilji was his son-in-law and also nephew.
  • He appointed Ala-ud-din Khilji as the Governor of Kara.
  • In 1292, Jalal-ud-din defeated the Mongols who had come up to Sunam.
  • Invasion of the Yadava kingdom was done by his nephew, Ala-ud-din
  • Jalal-ud-din was treacherously murdered by Ala-ud-din Khilji his son-in-law.

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khilji dynasty alauddin khalji Malik Kafur  delhi sultanate

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Alauddin Khilji  (1296-1316)

  • Alauddin khilji succeeded Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji
  • Alauddin khilji’s  generals namely, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan conquered Gujarat.
  • He captured Ranthambore and killed Hamir Deva its ruler.
  • In 1303 the Sultan himself marched against Chittor.
  • Chittor rajputs fought valiantly, but finally the ruler, Raja Ratan Singh, submitted.
  • He also captured Malwa, Dhar, Mandu, Ujjain, Marwar, Chanderi and Jalor.
  • Alauddin khilji was the 1st Sultan who attacked South India.
  • He sent his general Malik Kafur against the rulers of the south
  • Prataprudra-II of Warangal, Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava king of Devagiri, and Vira Ballala-III the Hoysala king were defeated.
  • The kingdoms of the south acknowledged the power of Alauddin Khilji and paid his monetary tributes.
  • Ala-ud-din successfully resisted the Mongol invasion more than 12 times.
  • He constructed a mosque in Rameswaram.
  • Alauddin khilji constructed a new capital at Siri
  • He also constructed Alai Darwaza, the Palace of a thousand pillars and the Fort of Siri.
  • Alauddin adopted the title of Sikander-i-Azam
  • He gave Amir Khusrau the title of Tuti-i-Hind (Parrot of India).
  • Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan was in his court
  • All grants of tax-free land and seized Muslim religious endowments.
  • He banned social parties and drinking liquor (were the root causes of rebellion)
  • Included non-Turks in his service.

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Military Reforms of Alauddin Khilji

  • Alauddin khilji was the first to introduced a permanent standing army.
  • He introduced of dagh, branding of horses
  • He also started chahra, descriptive roll of soldiers and insistence on a regular muster of the army
  • Alauddin khilji abolished the Iqtas of the royal troopers and started paying the salaries in cash.
  • He organised an spy system to report all secret transactions in houses of the nobility to the Sultan.

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Market Control & Economic Reforms

  • Alauddin khilji introduced strict price-control measures based on production costs
  • Merchants have to register themselves for business
  • He appointed Shahana-i-mandi (market controller), Barids (intelligence officers), and Munhias (Sultan’s secret agents)
  • Established four separate markets in Delhi for separate commodities.
  • Growers were ordered to sell their grain for cash in their fields at fixed prices and were not allowed to take any grain home for private sale.
  • Land revenue was 50% of the gross produce and he eliminated all middle-men
  • The diwan-i-mustakhra was the new department for collection of taxes

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khilji dynasty alauddin khalji
Alai Darwaza

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Mubarak Shah (1316-1320)

  • In 1315, Kafur, as regent, seized the reins of government  and imprisoned Mubarak Khan
  • The Sultan gave Hasan the title Khusrau Khan and transferred Malik Kafur’s iqta and army to him.

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Khusrau Shah (1320)

  • Khusrau sent an army to fight Ghazi Malik.
  • Khusrau was beheaded, and Ghazi Malik ascended the throne under the title of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq.

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Malik Kafur

  • Malik Kafur was the slave general of Alauddin Khilji
  • Malik Kafur was originally a Hindu slave who fell into the hands of the Muslims at Cambay after the conquest of Gujarat.
  • Alauddin’s general Nusrat Khan had paid 1,000 dinars to buy him, so Malik Kafur is also known as the “Hazardinari”.
  • Sultan raised him to the position of the ‘Vazir’ or the Chief Minister for his abilities.
  • Soon he was made the Commander-in-Chief of the royal forces that were sent for the conquest of the Deccan.
  • Within a short time he won the Deccan states of Warangal, Dwarasamudra, Devgiri, and Madura
  • Because of this achievement his influence over Alauddin Khilji increased abnormally.
  • Malik Kafur told the Sultan that his wife and sons were conspiring against him and consequently he got Malika Jahan and Alauddin’s two sons imprisoned.
  • Malik Kafur got his rival and heavily punished under the orders of the Sultan.

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Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan Empire

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Genghis Khan  (1162-1227)

  • Genghis Khan was born around 1162 and first known as Temujin
  • Genghis Khan was the son of the chief of the Yakka Mongols.
  • When he was 10, his father was poisoned and he became chief.
  • However, the tribe deserted him’ and he was forced to live alone, and survived by digging roots for food and  keeping sheep.
  • Three years later he was able to form alliances and organise an army.
  • He became famous for his strict discipline and training and for the superiority of his army.
  • He was soon became the ruler of Mongolia, then set out to conquer China.
  • China was made up of three main empires, Xi Xia, the Qin, and Na-Chung.
  • He defeated all of them.
  • Genghis Khan then moved his armies Northward, and defeated the Russian army.
  • Genghis Khan’s Empire was the largest ever established
  • It extending from the Caspian Sea to the Sea of Japan, with over 700 tribes and cities under his rule.

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Tughlaq Dynasty

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25)

  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty.
  • He gave more importance to postal arrangements, judicial, irrigation, agriculture, and police.
  • He brought Bengal, Utkala or Orissa, and Warangal under his control
  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established the city Tughlaqabad
  • In 1325 Ghiyas-ud-din was crushed to death while attending an event for his victories in Bengal.

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tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

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Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51)

  • Juna khan, (Ulugh Khan) the crown prince sworn the title Muhammad bin Tughluq.
  • He was the only Delhi Sultan who had received a comprehensive literary, religious and philosophical education, as well as military training
  • Muhammad bin Tughlaq stood upright for administrative and political unity of India.
  • He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) to protect his capital in 1327
  • Muhammad dispatched an army to the Kangra region in (Qarachil expedition) 1329-30
  • After some initial victories in Kangra, the imperial army pressed on to Tibet, where the local hill men annihilated it.
  • To fill the empty treasury, he raised taxes in the Doab region.
  • Many people ran away to the forests to avoid heavy taxes
  • Due to this cultivation was neglected and severe food shortage occurred.
  • Sultan has to give advance as Takkavi loans to enable the cultivators to buy seed, to sink wells, and to extend cultivation.
  • An agriculture ministry called the diwan-i-kohi was established to bring barren land under cultivation.
  • From 1339, he lived in a camp called ‘Svargadvari‘ for 2½ years on the bank of river Ganga
  • Sultan issued bronze (or copper) coins at par with the value of the silver tanka coins.
  • The value of coins and foreign merchants naturally stopped all business dealings with India
  • Hence sultan had to withdraw the copper token currency.
  • The decline of the Delhi Sultanate is claimed due to his makings of hasty decisions and out defective rules.

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Firoz Shah Tughlaq  (1351-88)

  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the son of of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq’s younger brother.
  • Compensation was paid to the heirs of all those whom Muhammad had executed
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq seized Cuttack and destroyed the Jagannatha temple at Puri
  • He created diwan-i-bandagan (department of slaves)
  • He established hospitals (Dar-ul-shafa), Marriage Bureau, (Diwani-i-kherat) and an Employment Bureau.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq also set up a separate department of public works. 
  • He also developed royal factories called karkhanas
  • He withdrew all Taquavi (agricultural) loans granted by Mohammed-bin-Tughluq.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq  revived the Iqtadari system and made it hereditary.
  • Soldiers were given land assignments, and their recruitment was made hereditary.
  • He was the first Sultan to impose Sharb (irrigation tax).
  • But at the same time, he built number of canals
  • He brought to an end to all unlawful and unjust taxes and collected only four types important taxes
    • Kharaj- 1/10 of the produce of the land,
    • Khams- 1/5 of the war booty,
    • Jizya-Poll Tax,
    • Zakat-Tax on Muslims for specific religious purposes
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq constructed towns like Firozabad Hissar, Jaunpur, and Fatehabad.
  • He also established Diwan-i-lstibqaq to give financial aid to the poor.
  • Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi is an autobiography of Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
  • He patronized scholar Zia-ud-din Barani.
  • During his reign a number of Sanskrit books on medicine, science and arts were translated into Persian.

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Firoz Shah
Remains of Feroz Shah Kotla

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End of Tughlug Dynasty

  • After Firoz’s death the sultanate disintegrated further.
  • The Sharqi kingdom of Jaunpur came into existence in 1394.
  • Malwa and Gujarat also broke away.
  • When Timur arrived on the scene in 1398-99, the fate of the Tughluq dynasty was sealed.

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Timur’s Invasion (1398)

  • The fabulous wealth of Hindustan attracted Timur the ruler of Samarkand.
  • During the period of Nasir-ud-din Mohammed Tughluq he invaded India.
  • In 1398 Timur, he captured Delhi and caused annihilation by pillaging and slaughtering people.

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451)

Khizr Khan (1414-21)

  • Khizr Khan was the founder of Sayyid Dynasty
  • He was the Governor of Multan.
  • Timur’s confinnation enhanced Khizr Khan’s prestige and enabled him to capture Delhi.
  • In 1414 he occupied the throne of Delhi.

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Mubarak Shah (1421-34)

  • Mubarak Shah crushed the local chiefs of the Doab region and the Khokhars.
  • He is first Sultan ruler to appoint Hindu nobles in the court of Delhi.
  • He constructed Mubarakbad City on the banks of the river Jamuna.

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Muhammad Shah (1434-45)

  • Muhammad Shah defeated the ruler of Malwa with the help of Bahlul Lodi the Governor of Lahore.
  • He conferred Bahlul Lodi with the title Khan-i-Khanan for helping in defeating the ruler of Malwa.
  • He was ruling a territory which extended merely forty miles around his capital.

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Ala-ud-din Shah (1445-57)

  • When he retired to Badaun in 1447, Bahlul Lodhi captured Delhi.
  • The Sultan did not contest Bahlul’s usurpation and formally transferred the sovereignty of Delhi to him in 1451.
  • The Sayyids had ruled in name only.

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sayyid lodi dynasty

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Lodi Dynasty (1451 -1526)

Bahlul Lodi  (1451-89)

  • Bahlul Lodi was the founder of Lodi Dynasty.
  • He never sat on the throne and he used to sit on the carpet in front of the throne with his nobles to gain their recognition and support.

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Sikandar Lodi  (1489-1517)

  • Sikandar Lodi was the son of Bahlul Lodi.
  • He set up a well-organized spy system.
  • Sikandar Lodi developed agriculture and industry, and tried to control the market price
  • He founded Agra and shifted his capital in the year 1506
  • A work on music names “Lahjati-Sikandar Shahi” was created during his reign.
  • He introduced the system of auditing the accounts.

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Ibrahim Lodi  (1517-26)

  • Ibrahim Lod was an intolerant and adamant ruler
  • He had humiliated many nobles and killed some nobles cruelly.
  • He also treated his son Dilwar Khan Lodi cruelly.
  • Daulat Khan of Punjab and Rana Sanga of Mewar, invited Babur the ruler of Kabul to invade India.
  • Babur invaded in India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the 1st battle of Panipat in 1526

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Ministers to Sultan

  • Wazir – Prime Minister and Finance Minister
  • Diwani-I-Risalt – Foreign Affairs Minister
  • Sadr-us-Suddar – Minister of Islamic Law
  • Diwan-I-lnsha – Correspondence Minister
  • Diwan-I-Ariz – Defence or War Minister
  • Qazi-ul-quzar – Minister of Justice

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Land Revenue System of Delhi Sultanate 

  • The lands were classified into three categories
    • Iqta land – Lands assigned to officials
    • Khalisa land – Land under the direct control of the Sultan
    • Inam land – Land granted to religious leaders or institutions.
  • A class of khuts (smaller landlords) and Hindu rais (autonomous rajas) were emerged
  • Land tax Kharaj was main source of income to the state.
  • Alauddin and Muhammad Tughluq took measures to fix land revenue
  • Another secular source of income to state was khams or the tax on mines, treasure-troves, etc.
  • There were many other taxes, irrigation tax, grazing tax, customs and excise from traders and merchants, house-tax, etc

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Muhammad bin Tughlaq delhi sultanate
Daulatabad Fort

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Industries

  • Cotton Textile Industry Increased production for new techniques, such as spinning wheel, cotton-carder’s bow and weaver’s treadles.
  • Silk Industry also had an increase in the production of silk cloth due to the introduction of sericulture
  • It made India less dependent on Iran and Afghanistan for raw silk.
  • Paper Industry in India was started by the Turks and there was an extensive use of paper from the 14th and 15th centuries.
  • Building Industry Introduction of new techniques, like the vaulted (arched) roofing and the cementing lime, made possible large-roofed brick structures.

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delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

Literature

  • The Delhi Sultans patronised learning and literature.
  • Many of them had great love for Arabic and Persian literature.
  • Learned men came from Persia and Persian language got encouragement from the rulers

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Ziauddin Barani

  • Barani was 74 years old when he completed his work.
  • Ziauddin Barani was son of a government officer
  • He was employed at the headquarters for 17 years in the reign of Muhammad Tughluq.
  • Barani’s Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, named after Firuz shah Tughluq
  • It begins with the first year of Balban’s reign (1266), leaving a clear gap of six years after the close of the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, and ends with the sixth year of Firuz Shah Tugluq’s reign (1357).
  • Barani wrote another book, Fatawa-i-Jahandari

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Amir Khusrau

  • Khusrau was born in 1253 in Patiala
  • Tuti-i-Hind (Parrot of India) title was given by Allauddin Khilji
  • Khusrau’s father served Sultan Iltutmish in a high position.
  • With his second collection of verses, Wast-uLHayat, Amir Khusrau’s name spread from house to house, wide and far and he came to be known in Persia as well.
  • The famous poet of Persia, Sa’di sent him compliments.
  • In Nuh Sipihr (1318), Khusrau’s fascination with India’s birds and animals, flower, its languages and people finds an impassioned expression.
  • His spiritual mentor, Nizamuddin Auliya

delhi sultanate slave khilji tughlaq sayyid lodi dynasty

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