1612 English ship Dragon under Captain Best with a little ship, successfully fought a Portuguese fleet. Jahangir, who had no navy, was greatly impressed.
In 1613, the Portuguese offended Jehangir by capturing Mughal ships, imprisoning many Muslims.
Portuguese started a cruel slave trade by purchasing or seizing Hindu and Muslim children. They seized two slave girls of Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan ordered the Bengal governor Qasim Khan to take action against the Portuguese. A siege of Hooghly finally led to the Portuguese fleeing.
Their dishonest trade practices also evoked a strong reaction. The Portuguese earned notoriety as sea pirates.
The discovery of Brazil diverted colonising activities of Portugal to the West.
Goa had lost its importance as a port after the fall of the Vijayanagara empire.
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company under the name Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) was formed.
Dutch East India Company is the 1st multinational corporation in the world in 1602.
1st company to issue stock bonds and shares.
1stfactory at Masulipatnam in 1605.
Other Dutch factories were at Pulicat, Chinsura, Kasimbazar, Patna, Balasore, Surat, Karaikal, Nagapattinam and Cochin.
Pulicat emerged as headquarters of Dutch operations in India.
Pulicat was later replaced by Nagapattinam near Chennai.
Indian textiles as the premier export of India goes to Dutch East India Company after Portuguese.
Decline of the Dutch in India
Dutch got drawn into the trade of the Malay Archipelago.
Anglo-Dutch rivalry lasted for about seven decades.
Final collapse of the Dutch came with their defeat by English in the Battle of Bedara or Hooghly in 1759.
their main commercial interest lay in the Spice Islands of Indonesia from where they earned a huge profit through business.
British in India – East India Company
Francis Drake’s voyage sailed around the world in 1580.
Britain achieved victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588.
This 2 incident encouraged British sailors to venture out to the East.
1599, a group of English merchants calling themselves the ‘Merchant Adventurers’ formed a company.
On December 31, 1600, Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter with rights of exclusive trading to the company for East.
East India Company was established in 1600.
Monopoly of 15 years was granted, which in May 1609 was extended indefinitely time period.
Captain Hawkins arrived (ship – Hector) in Surat in Aug 1608.
He came into the court of Jahangir in 1609, but failed to get permission for factory.
In 1612, Captain Thomas Best (ship – Red Dragon) defeated Portuguese in the Battle of Swally.
Battle of Swally happened at the coast of Suvali near Surat.
Jahangir granted permission to English in 1612 to establish a factory at Surat.
1st factory of East India Company established at Surat in 1613.
1615, Thomas Roe came to Mughal court as ambassador of James I, King of England.
Thomas Roe obtained permission from Jahangir to establish English trading factories in different parts of India.
1616, East India Company established 1st factory in the south in Masulipatnam.
By 1619, English established their factories at Agra, Ahmedabad, Baroda and Broach.
Thomas Roe stayed there till 1619.
Golden Farman issued to them by the Sultan of Golconda in 1632 for trading freely in the ports of Golconda.
1633, 1st factory in east India at Hariharpur in the Mahanadi delta and at Balasore (in Odisha).
1639 received from the ruler of Chandragiri permission to build a fortified factory at Madras.
1644, 1st English fortress in India Fort St George (White Town) founded in Madras.
Shah Shuja, the subahdar of Bengal in 1651, allowed the English to trade in Bengal.
1651, established 1st factory in Bengal at Hooghly.
1667, Aurangzeb gave the English a farman for trade in Bengal.
1698, they succeeded in getting the permission to buy the zamindari of the three villages of Sutanuti, Gobindapur and Kalikata (Kalighat).
Fortified settlement was named Fort William in year 1700 when it also became the seat of the eastern presidency (Calcutta).
Charles Eyre was its first president.
1715, John Serman (the Governor of Calcutta) and William Hamilton cured Farukkhsiyar of a disease.
East India Company gained 3 farman in 1717 to establish offices at Bengal, Gujarat and Hyderabad.
Those farmans were regarded Magna Carta of the East India Company.
Now Company was permitted to issue dastaks (passes) for the transportation of goods.
It was decreed that the coins of the East India Company Company minted at Bombay were to have currency throughout the Mughal empire.
After the English revolution of 1688 a rival company was formed.
The new company, however, proved a failure.
Two companies were amalgamated in 1708
East India company ceased operations in 1874.
Denmark – Danish in India
Danes formed an East India Company in 1616.
Established settlement at Tranquebar (Tamil Nadu) in 1620 and at Serampore (Bengal) in 1676.
Serampore was their headquarters in India.
They were forced to sell all their settlements in India to the British in 1845.
French East India Company
French East India Company formed in 1664 by Colbert, a minister under Louis XIV.
1668 Francis Caron established 1st French factory at Surat.
1669 Maracara set up a factory at Masulipatinam obtaining permission from Sultan of Golconda.
1673 Sher Khan Lodi governor under Bijapur Sultan, granted Francois Martin to founded Pondicherry (Fort Louis).
Its became headquarters of the French possessions in India and he became its 1st governor too.
1673 they obtained permission from Shaista Khan, Mughal Subahdar of Bengal, to establish a township at Chandernagore.
Other French factories in India were Mahe, Balasore, Qasim Bazar and Karaikal.
Dutch captured Pondicherry in 1693.
Treaty of Ryswick concluded in 1697 restored Pondicherry to the French
Carnatic Wars – Anglo-French Struggle
British and the French came to India for trading purposes but both had visions of establishing political power over the region.