This new part consists of only one Article, that is, Article 51A which for the first time specified a code of ten fundamental duties of the citizens
List of Fundamental Duties in India
According to Article 51A, Part IVA, it shall be the duty of every citizen of India
to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the NationalFlag and the NationalAnthem
to cherish and follow the nobleideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom
to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrityofIndia
to defendthecountry and render national service when called upon to do so
to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women
to value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture;
to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures;
to develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
to safeguard public property and to abjure violence
to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement; and
to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of sixandfourteenyears (86th Amendment)
Features of Fundamental Duties in India
Some of them are moral duties while others are civic duties.
For instance, cherishing noble ideals of freedom struggle is a moral precept and respecting the Constitution, National Flag and National Anthem is a civic duty.
They refer to such values which have been a part of the Indian tradition, mythology, religions and practices.
In other words, they essentially contain just a codification of tasks integral to the Indian way of life.
FundamentalDuties in India are confined to citizensonly and do not extend to foreigners.
Like the Directive Principles, the fundamental duties in India are also non-justiciable.
The Constitution does not provide for their direct enforcement by the courts.
However, the Parliament is free to enforce them by suitable legislation.
Criticisms of Fundamental Duties
The list of duties is not exhaustive as it does not cover other important duties like castingvote, payingtaxes, familyplanning and so on.
In fact, duty to pay taxes was recommended by the SwaranSinghCommittee.