March 10, 2019
- National Institution for Transforming India.
- Set up in 1st Jan 2015 by a Cabinet Resolution.
- Its target to empowered states as equal partners in national development -principle of Cooperative Federalism.
- It’s a Think Tank offering domain knowledge as well as strategic expertise to all levels of the government.
- Achieve proper Implementation by monitoring progress
- It is a bottom to top approach.
Need of it in Changing Situation
- India has changed dramatically over the past 65 years
- Government highlighted some key areas
- Growing urban population
- Higher demographic dividend and low average Age
- People is moving from scarcity and survival to safety and surplus
- Indian economy has expanded by over a hundred times, going from a GDP of Rs. 10,000 crore to Rs. 100 lakh crore
- India emerge as one of the world’s largest economy
- Agriculture’s share in the GDP has seen a dramatic drop, from more than 50%to less than 15%
Shift in the private sector
- Private sector has matured into a vibrant and dynamic force
- Government need to shift from allocator of resources in a command and control Eco-system, to a directing, calibrating, supporting and regulating a market Eco-system
- Government must, transition from being a ‘major player’ in the economy, to being a ‘catalyst’ nurturing an ‘enabling environment’ for all, from small self-employed entrepreneurs
Forces of globalization
- Policy making and functioning of govt. need to match the realities of our continuing integration with the global economic system
Role of the states
- States must become national goal, for the nation’s progress
- “it is unreasonable to centralize powers where central control and uniformity is not clearly essential or is impracticable” – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
- Technology advancements and information access integrated our varied regions and ecosystems
- National economy and society, opening up newer avenues of coordination and cooperation.
- Technology is playing a role in enhancing transparency, efficiency and holding govt. more accountable
NITI Aayog Members – Structure
- Chairman – Prime Minister of India (de-facto)
- Governing Council – comprise the Chief Ministers of all states and Lt. Governors of union territories
- Regional Councils
- Vice-Chairperson – appointed by the PM
- Ex-Officio Members – maximum of 4 members of the Union Council of Ministers to be nominated by the PM
- Chief Executive Officer – to be appointed by the PM for a fixed tenure, in the rank of Secretary
- Full-time Members
- Part-time Members – maximum of 2, from leading universities, research organizations
- Special Invitees – have experts, specialists from relevant domains
Functions of NITI Aayog
Cooperative & Competitive Federalism
- State governments and the local bodies must be made equal partners in the development process
- Implementing a genuine and continuing Center-State partnership
Shared National Agenda
- A shared vision of national development priorities and strategies
State’s Best Friend at the Centre
- It will support states in addressing their own challenges
- Help to building capacity on strengths and comparative advantages
- Restructure the planning process into a ‘bottom-up model’
- Guiding states to further empower local bodies
- It will provide specialised inputs in strategic, functional and technical to center and states
Vision & Scenario Planning
- It will design medium and long-term strategic frameworks for the big picture vision of India’s future
- Target will be constantly monitored for necessary mid-course re-calibration for evolving trends and addressing emerging challenge
- To build a repository of specialized domain expertise, both secretarial and cross-secretarial
- This will enable the imbibing of good governance best practices, both national as well as international, regards to structural reforms in the country
Network of Expertise
- Include external ideas and expertise into government policies and programmes through a collaborative community of national and international experts
- It will facilitate harmonization across different layers of govt. in overlapping issues
- To provide a ‘platform’ for mutual resolution of inter-sectoral, inter-departmental, inter-state as well as center-state issues
Coordinating interface with the World
- It will be the ‘nodal point’ for strategically harnessing global expertise and resources in India’s developmental process
- To enable ‘capacity building’ and ‘technology up-gradation’ across governments
Monitoring and Evaluation
- It will ‘monitor’ the implementation of policies and programmes, and ‘evaluate’ their impact
Guiding Principle of NITI Aayog
- Aayog will be guided by an overall vision of development which is inclusive, equitable and sustainable
- It will follow a strategy of empowerment built on human dignity and national self-respect
- It will follow a development model which is all round, all pervasive, all inclusive and holistic
- To priorities service and upliftment of the poor, marginalized and downtrodden
- To empower vulnerable and marginalized sections, redressing identity-based inequalities of all kinds—gender, region, religion, caste or class
- To integrate our villages into the development process
- To harness our greatest asset, the people of India, by focusing on their development
- It can be possible through education and skilling, and their empowerment
- To transform the developmental process into a people-driven one, making an awakened and participative citizenry – the driver of good governance
- To nurture an open, transparent, accountable, pro-active and purposeful style
- Maintain sustainability at the core of our planning and developmental process
Specialized Wings in the NITI Aayog
- Research Wing – It will develop in-house sectoral expertise as a dedicated think tank of top notch domain experts, specialists and scholars
- Consultancy Wing – It will provide panels of expertise and funding, for Central and state govt. to match their requirements with solution providers, public and private, national and international
- Team India Wing -It will comprise of representatives from every state and ministry and will serve as a permanent platform for national collaboration.
- By late 2015-16, Niti initiated the Niyatam under which it plans to engage with the states on 6 issues:
Size of the government
- Number of the government departments is to be cut down to maximum 20 to enhance administrative efficiency and effectiveness
- Number of states’ schemes and centrally funded are to be rationalized
- It aimed at giving states more revenues (14th Finance Commission) to formulate their Budgets in a better way
- States’ development is to be monitored by collecting data on a set of indicators such as education, health, roads, water, electricity, mobile penetration etc.
- The Aayog also proposes to work on district planning by examining the baseline indicators, strengths and weaknesses of each district
Result Framework Document
- Establishing a result framework document at block level
- Aimed at improving efficiency in government functioning
- Laws are to be revamped by repealing old laws
- Rationalising and consolidating the rest of the laws and introducing new laws
Action Agenda of NITI Aayog
- The work on the three documents has progressed in parallel
- Fifteen Year Vision
- Seven Year Strategy
- Three Year Action Agenda
Three Year Revenue and Expenditure Framework
- Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) for the Centre is proposed. based on forecasts of revenue
- It proposes sector-wise expenditure allocation for three years
- Roadmap consisting of sifting additional revenues towards high priority sectors – health, education, agriculture, rural development, defence, railways, roads
- Doubling Farmers’ Income by 2022
- Reform the agriculture product marketing to ensure farmers’ income
- Raise productivity by irrigation, faster seed replacement and precision agriculture (site specific crop management )
Industry and Services – Job Creation
- Create Coastal Employment Zones (CEZs) to boost exports and generate high-productivity jobs
- Labour-market flexibility through reforming key laws
- Action points for specific sectors – Apparel, Leather and Footwear, Electronics, Food processing., Gems and Jewellery, Tourism, Fïnancc and Real Estate
- Bring down land prices for affordable housing through increased supply of urban land
- Reform the Rent Control Act along the lines of Model Tenancy Act.
- Promote dormitory housing
- Address issues related to city transportation infrastructure and waste management
- Actions targeted aimed at improving development outcomes in the
- North Eastern Region
- Coastal Areas and Islands.
- North Himalayan states
- Desert and Drought prone states
Transport and Digital Connectivity
- Strengthen infrastructure in roadways, railways, shipping and ports, inland waterways and civil aviation
- Ensure last-mile digital connectivity, particularly for e-governance and financial inclusion, through developing infrastructure, simplifying the payments structure and improving literacy.
- Introducing low cost debt instruments and operationalizing the National Investment Infrastructure Fund (NIIF)
- Providing electricity to all households by 2022
- LPG connection to all BPL households, elimination of black carbon by 2022
- Extension of the city gas distribution programme to 100 smart cities
- Coal sector reform by regulator and encouraging commercial mining
Science and Technology
- Create comprehensive database of all government schemes and evaluate them
- Develop guidelines for PPPs in science and technology to improve education and demand-driven research
- Channel science and technology to address development challenges such as access to education, improving agricultural productivity and waste water management
- Create a National Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation (NSTIF) to identify and deliberate national issues
- Streamline the administration of the patent regime.
- Re-calibrate the role of the govt. by shrinking its involvement in non-public purpose activities and expanding its role in areas that necessarily require public provision
- Implement the roadmap on closing loss-making PSEs and strategic disinvestment of 20 identified CPSEs.
- Expand the government’s role in public health and quality education
- Strengthen the civil services through better human resource management, e-governance, tenures of secretaries and increasing specialization and lateral entry.
Taxation and Regulation
- Tackle tax evasion, expand the tax base through reforms
- Strengthen public procurement
The Rule of Law
- Undertake significant judicial system reforms through use of ICT
- Reduced judicial workload
- Legislative administrative and operational reforms of police are suggested to the states.
Education and Skill Development
- Shift the emphasis on the quality of school education by focusing on foundational learning
- Move away from input-based to outcome based assessments.
- Revisit the policy of automatic promotion up to eighth grade.
- Create a tiered regulation of universities and colleges to provide greater autonomy to top universities under the current system.
- Focus on creating and funding public universities under the World Class Universities program.
- Focus on public health through more government expenditure on it
- Formulate a model policy on human resources for health
- Implement a bridge course for nurses AYUSH practitioners in primary care.
- Reform Indian Medical Council Act and the acts governing homeopathy and Indian systems of medicine
- Launch the National Nutrition Mission; develop a comprehensive Nutrition Information System.