Motion in Parliament

  • Discussion on a matter of public importance need a motion made with the consent of the presiding officer.
  • The House expresses its decisions through the adoption or rejection of motions
  • Motions can be moved by ministers or private members
Substantive Motion
  • It is a self-contained independent proposal dealing with impeachment of the President or removal of Chief Election Commissioner or so on.
Substitute Motion
  • It is a motion that is moved in substitution of an original motion
  • If adopted by the House, it supersedes the original motion.
Subsidiary Motion
  • It cannot state the decision of the House without reference to the original motion
  • It is divided into three subcategories
    • Ancillary Motion – It is used as the regular way of proceeding with various kinds of business.
    • Superseding Motion: It is moved in the course of debate on another issue and seeks to supersede that issue.
    • Amendment – It seeks to modify or substitute only a part of the original motion.
Closure Motion
  • It is a motion moved by a member to cut short the debate
  • If the motion is approved by the House, debate is stopped and the matter is put to vote.
  • There are four kinds of closure motions
Simple Closure
  • It is one when a member moves that the ‘matter having been sufficiently discussed be now put to vote’.
Closure by Compartments
  • In this case, the clauses of a bill or a lengthy resolution are grouped into parts
  • The debate covers the part as a whole and the entire part is put to vote.
Kangaroo Closure
  • only important clauses are taken up for debate and voting and the intervening clauses are skipped
Guillotine Closure
  • when the undiscussed clauses of a bill or a resolution are also put to vote along with the discussed ones as the time allotted for the discussion is over
Privilege Motion 
  • It is moved by a member when he feels that any other member has committed a breach of privilege of the House.
  • It Is punishable under law of Parliament.
  • The Speaker/RS chairperson is the first level of scrutiny of a privilege motion
  • In the Lok Sabha, the Speaker nominates a committee of privileges, consisting 15 members, to prepare a report on that
  • In the Rajya Sabha, the deputy chairperson heads the committee of privileges, that consists of 10 members
Calling Attention Motion
  • It is introduced in the Parliament by a member to call the attention of a minister to a matter of urgent public importance, and to seek an authoritative statement from him on that matter.
  • It is also an Indian innovation in the parliamentary procedure and has been in existence since 1954.
Adjournment Motion
  • It is introduced in the Parliament to draw attention of urgent public importance
  • It needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.
  • As it interrupts the normal business of the House, it is regarded as an extraordinary device.
  • It involves an element of censure against the government
  • Rajya Sabha is not permitted to make use of this device.
  • The discussion on an adjournment motion should last for not less than two hours and thirty minutes.
  • It should not cover more than one matter
  • It should be restricted to a specific matter of recent occurrence
  • It should not raise a question of privilege
  • It should not revive discussion on a matter that has been discussed in the same session
  • It should not deal with any matter that is under adjudication by court
  • It should not raise any question that can be raised on a distinct motion
Censure Motion
  • It can be brought against the ruling government or against any minister for the failure to act of their policy.
  • It can be moved only in Lok Sabha only by the opposition.
  • A censure motion must specify the charges against the government
  • If a censure motion is passed in the Lok Sabha, the Council of ministers is bound to seek the confidence of the Lok Sabha as early as possible.
No Confidence Motion
  • If it is passed in the Lok Sabha, the council of ministers must resign from office
  • Its against all the council of ministers or government
  • The motion needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.
  • No prior reason needs to be stated for its adoption in the Lok Sabha
  • Rajya Sabha can’t move no-confidence motion against the Government
  • There is no mention of a no-confidence motion in the constitution
  • Rule 198 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha, empowers members of lok sabha to doing so.
  • During the third Lok Sabha in 1963, first one was moved by Acharya J B Kripalani against the government headed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • First successful no-confidence motion was moved by Y B Chavan in 1979 against the government of Prime Minister Morarji Desai.
Motion of Thanks
  • The 1st session after each general election and the 1st session of every fiscal year is addressed by the president.
  • In this address, the president outlines the policies and programmes of the government
  • It called ‘Motion of Thanks’.
  • At the end of the discussion, the motion is put to vote.
  • This motion must be passed in the House. Otherwise, it amounts to the defeat of the government.
No-Day-Yet-Named Motion
  • It is a motion that has been admitted by the Speaker but no date has been fixed for its discussion.
  • The Speaker, after consultation with the leader of the House or on the recommendation of the Business Advisory Committee, allots days or part of a day for the discussion
  • The members can move resolutions to draw the attention of the House or the government to matters of general public interest.
  • A member who has moved a resolution cannot withdraw it except by leave of the House.
  • All resolutions come in the category of substantive motions, that is to say, every resolution is a particular type of motion.
  • all motions are not necessarily put to vote but all the resolutions are required to be voted
  • Resolutions are classified into three categories:
Private Member’s Resolution
  • It is one that is moved by a private member
  • It is discussed only on alternate Fridays and in the afternoon sitting.
Government Resolution
  • It is one that is moved by a minister.
  • It can be taken up any day from Monday to Thursday.
Statutory Resolution
  • It can be moved by any member
  • It is always tabled in pursuance of a provision in the Constitution or an Act of Parliament.