Constitution had a socialistcontentinDirectivePrinciples of State Policy before 1976 as well.
Congress party adopted a resolution to establish a ‘socialistic pattern of society’ in its Avadisession in 1955.
Indian brand of socialism is a ‘democratic socialism’ and not a ‘communistic socialism’.
Supreme Court says, ‘Democratic socialism aims to end poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity
Indiansocialism is a blend of Marxism and Gandhism, leaning heavily towards Gandhian socialism
The new economic policy (1991) of liberalization, privatization and globalization has diluted the socialist credentials of the Indian State
The term ‘secular’ was added by the 42ndConstitutionalAmendment Act of 1976.
Supreme Court said in 1974 that, the words ‘secular state’ were not mentioned in the Constitution, but there can be no doubt that Constitution-makers wanted to establish such a state.
Articles25to28 of constitution proves that
Democracy is of two types
In direct democracy, the people exercise their supreme power directly as is the case in Switzerland.
There are four devices of direct democracy
In indirectdemocracy, representatives elected by the people exercise the supreme power
They carry on the government and make the laws.
This type of democracy, also known as representativedemocracy
It is of two kinds
Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of law, independence of judiciary, and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.
The term ‘democratic’ is used in the Preamble mean
Dr. Ambedkar said in his concluding speech in the Constituent Assembly on November 25, 1949 “Political democracy cannot last unless there lies at the base of it social democracy”
Socialdemocracy mean a way of life which recognises liberty, equality and fraternity
A democratic polity can be classified into two categories – monarchy and republic.
In a monarchy, the head of the state (usually king or queen) enjoys a hereditary position, that is, he comes into office through succession, Ex-Britain.
In a republic, the headof the state is alwayselected directly or indirectly for a fixed period
The term ‘republic’ in our Preamble indicates that India has an electedhead called the president.
He is elected indirectly for a fixed period of five years.
A republic also means two more things
One, vesting of politicalsovereigntyin the people and not in a single individual like a king
Second, the absenceof any privilegedclass and hence all public offices being opened to every citizen without any discrimination.
Objectives of the Constitution of India
The term ‘justice’ in the Preamble embraces 3 forms