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Sena Dynasty & Late Classical Bengal
Sena Dynasty (1097-1230)
- Sena dynasty ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries.
- The empire at its peak covered much of the north-eastern region of the Indian subcontinent.
- The rulers of the Sena Dynasty traced their origin to the south Indian region of Karnataka.
- Nabadwip was the capital of Sena dynasty.
- Sena rulers were brahmin by caste and kshatriya by profession.
- They consolidated the caste system in Bengal.
- Hemantasena held the position of a feudatory chief in the Pala empire.
- He is also described as rajaraksasudaksah (protector of king) in Barrackpur plate of Vijayasena.
Vijaya Sena (1097-1160)
- Vijaya Sena was a subordinate ruler in Rarh under the Palas.
- Middle of 12th century, he defeated Palas and founded the independent rule of Senas dynasty.
- He conquered Kamarupa and Kalinga.
- Vijaya Sena has two capital, Vijayapuri in West Bengal and Vikramapura in Bangladesh.
- His Barrackpur copper plate was issued from Vikramapura.
- Vijaya Sena had a very long reign of about 62 years.
- He assumed the imperial titles’ of Paramamaheshvara, Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja.
- Vijaya-prashasti was written by the famous poet Sriharsa.
Ballala Sena (1160-78)
- Ballala Sena ended the Pala Empire by defeating Govindapala.
- He conquered Magadha and Mithila.
- Ballala Sena married Ramadevi a princess of Western Chalukya Empire.
- Two epigraphs of the time of Vallalasena, Naihati copper plate, and the Sanokhar Image Inscription.
- Ballala Sena introduced the practice of Kulinism in Bengal.
- He wrote the Danasagara in 1168 and started writing the Adbhutasagara in 1169 but could not complete it.
- Vallalachairta was composed by Anandabhatta in 1510.
Lakshmana Sena (1179 – 1206)
- Lakshmana Sena assumes the title of Gaudeshvara.
- He completed the Adbhuta Sagara, an incomplete book of his father.
- Lakshmana Sena was devout to Vaishnava.
- His court was an assembly of several renowned poets
- Jayadeva, the author of Gitagovinda
- Dhoyi, the composer of Pavanduta
- Govardhana the author of Arya-saptasati
- Shridharadasa, compiled the Saduktikarnamrta, an anthology of the Sanskrit verses during his reign.
- His Chief Minister and Chief Judge were Halayudha Mishra, who wrote the Brahmanasarvasva.
- Umapatidhara, the author of the Deopara Prashasti
- Minhaj-us-Siraj, the author of the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, designated him as a ‘great Rae’ of Bengal and compared him with Sultan Qutbuddin.
- In 1203, Bakhtiyar Khalji attacked Nabadwip and defeated Lakshman Sen.
- He captured northwest Bengal and eastern Bengal remained under Sena control.
Later Rulers (1206-30)
- Vishvarupa Sena and Keshava Sena were the last two rulers of the Sena dynasty.
- The Deva Kingdom was a Hindu dynasty of medieval Bengal
- Deva Kingdom ruled over eastern Bengal after the collapse Sena Empire.
- Their capital was Vikrampur in present-day Munshiganj District, Bangladesh.
- Madhava Dasharatha-Deva extended his kingdom to cover much of East Bengal.