Vijayanagar Empire & Bahmani Sultanate

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

  • By the end of the Sultanate Period, Multan and Bengal were the first territories to break away from the Delhi and declared independent
  • Many other territories in the Deccan region also rose to power.

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vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi
Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1672)

  • Harihara and Bukka are the founders of the Vijayanagar Empire in 1336 A.D.
  • It was on the southern banks of Tungabhadra
  • They made Hampi as the capital city.
  • They served under Kakatiya ruler of Warangal

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Vijayanagar Empire was Ruled by

  • Sangama dynasty
  • Saluva dynasty
  • Tuluva dynasty
  • Aravidu dynasty

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Harihara I  (1336–56)

  • In 1336 Harihara I became the ruler of Sangama Dynasty
  • By 1346, the whole of the Hoyasala kingdom had passed into the hands of the Vijayanagar rulers.
  • By 1377 that the sultanate of Madurai was completely wiped out.
  • Vijayanagar empire then comprised the whole of south India upto Ramesvaram, including the Tamil country as well as Kerala.
  • Bagapellsi Copper Plate Inscription of Harihara I tells us about his achievements
  • In 1356 Bukka-I succeeded Harihara.

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

Deva Raya I (1406–22)

  • He was able make alliance and defeated Firoz Shah of Bahmani and annexed the entire territory up to the mouth of the Krishna.
  • A Venetian tourist Nicolo Conti visited his court
  • Hazare Rama temple was constructed during his rule
  • Madhura, a noted Jain poet, was in his court
  • Madhura wrote the Dharmanathapurana on the life of the 15th Jain Tirthankar in Kannada

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Deva Raya II  (1424–46)

  • Deva Raya II was the greatest ruler of the Sangama dynasty.
  • He acquired the title of Gajabetegara
  • In order to strengthen his army, he inducted more Muslims in his army
  • He asked all his Hindu soldiers and officers to learn the art of archery from Muslim army.
  • Srirangam copper plates of Deva Raya Il list the various achievements of the ruler
  • Sanskrit poet Gunda Dimdima and Telugu poet Kavisarvabhauma Srinatha, author of Haravilasam, was in his court.
  • Persian traveller Abdur Razzak visited his court.

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

Saluva and Tuluva Dynasty

  • After some time of the death of Dev Raya II the throne was usurped by the king’s  minister, Saluva Narasimha.
  • Thus the Sangama dynasty came to an end and the Saluva dynasty was established
  • The Saluva dynasty also soon came to an end, and a new dynasty called the Tuluva dynasty was founded by Vira Narasimha

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vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya
Vittala Temple, Hampi

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

Krishna deva Raya  (1509-29)

  • Krishnadeva Raya of the Tuluva dynasty was the most famous king of the Vijayanagar Empire
  • He assumed the title of ‘Yavanarajyasthapanacharya’ (Establisher of the Yavanaor Muslim kingdom)
  • In 1523 he captured Orissa and Warangal
  • He built large tanks and canals for irrigation.
  • He maintained friendly relationship with the Portuguese governor, Albuquerque
  • Portuguese traveler Domingo Paes and Barbosa visited his court
  • He was known as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
  • Eight eminent luminaries in literature known as Ashtadiggajas were at his court.
  • He wrote Amukthamalyadha (Telugu)
  • Allasani Peddanna, the author of Manucharitram, he was also known as Andhra Kavitapitamaha
  • Tenali Ramalinga, the author of Panduranga Mahatyam was also famous

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Achyuta Deva Raya (1529 – 42)

  • He was the younger brother of Krishna Deva Raya
  • Portuguese traveler, Fernoa Nuniz, came to India during his reign.
  • He patronised the Kannada poet Chatu Vittalanatha, the great singer and composer Purandaradasa (father of Carnatic music), and the Sanskrit scholar Rajanatha Dindima II.
  • The Tiruvengalanatha temple, which is now popularly known as Achyutaraya temple

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Rama Raja

  • Ram raja was a son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya.
  • He was able to playoff various Muslim power against one another.
  • He entered into a commercial treaty with the Portuguese
  • Ram Raja completely defeated the Bijapur ruler.
  • Then he allied himself with the Bijapur ruler to inflict humiliating defeats on Golconda and Ahmednagar.
  • However, his enemies (except Berar) ultimately combined to inflict a crushing defeat on Vijayanagar at Bannihatti, in Battle of Talikota, in 1565.
  • This battle is also known as the Battle of Raksasa Tangadi.
  • Rama Raja was imprisoned and immediately executed.

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Trade and Commerce

  • According to Abdur Razzak, state had 300 sea ports
  • Most important commercial area on the west coast was Malabar, with its important port Cannanore
  • Among the exports, the main items were cloth, spices, rice, iron, salt petre, sugar, etc.
  • They issued Gold Pagoda or Varaha Coin

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Position of Women

  • Women occupied a high position and took an active part in political, social and literary life of the empire.
  • They were educated and trained in wrestling, in the use of various weapons of offence and defence, in music and fine arts.
  • Nuniz writes that the kings had women astrologers, clerks, accountants, guards and wrestlers.

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vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1526)

Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah (1347-58)

  • Also known as Hasan Gangu was the founder of Bahmani Kingdom.
  • He was a Turkish officer of Devagiri under Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
  • His sultanate stretched from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal, included the whole of Deccan up to the river Krishna
  • Capital at Gulbarga.

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Muhammad Shah-I (1358-77)

  • He was an able general and administrator.
  • He defeated Kapaya Nayaks of Warangal and the Vijayanagar ruler Bukka-I.

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Firoz Shah Bahmani (1397-1422)

  • He defeated the Vijayanagar ruler Deva Raya I.

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Ahmad Shah Wali (1422-35)

  • Ahmad Shah Wali conquered the kingdom of Warangal.
  • He changed his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.

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Muhammad Shah-lll (1463-82)

  • In 1463 Muhammad Shah-lll became the Sultan at the age of nine
  • Muhammad Gawan became the regent of the infant ruler.
  • Under Muhammad Gawan’s able leadership the Bahmani kingdom became very powerful.

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Muhammad Gawan

  • He was the vakil as well as the wazir of Muhammad Shah Ill between 1463-81
  • He improved the administration, systematized finances, encouraged public education, reformed the revenue system, disciplined the army and eliminated corruption.
  • In 1481 Muhammad Gawan persecuted by the Deccan Muslims who were jealous of him and sentenced to death by Muhammad Shah.
  • He introduced the use of gunpowder in the war against the Vijayanagar kings in Belgaum

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quli qutub shah adil shahi

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

Breck up of the Bahmani kingdom

Nizam Shahis of Ahmadnagar (1490-1633)

  • Founded by Ahmad Bahri
  • Later in 1633 Ahmadnagar was conquered and annexed by Shah Jahan in 1633
  • Malik Ambar was a popular Prime Minister of the Ahmadnagar, also pioneer in guerilla warfare

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Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur (1490-1686)

  • Founded by Yusuf Adil Shah.
  • Muhammed Adil Shah built Gol Gumbaz, a tomb with the world’s second largest dome (St. Paul’s church in Rome being the world’s largest) at Bijapur. It is also famous for the so-called ‘Whispering Gallery’.
  • It was later conquered and annexed by Aurangzeb(1686).

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Imad Shahis of Berar (1490-1574)

  • Founded by Fatullah Khan Imad-ul-mulk.
  • Later it was conquered and annexed by one of the Nizam Shahi rulers of Ahmadnagar.

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Qutub Shahi Dynasty of Golconda (1518-1687)

  • Founded by Quli Qutub Shah who built the famous Golconda fort and made it his capital.
  • Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah, was the greatest of all, and he founded the city of Hyderabad
  • He also built the famous Charminar in it.
  • The kingdom was later annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687

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Barid Shahis of Bidar (1528-1619)

  • Founded by Ali Barid.It was laterannexed by the Adil Shah is of Bijapur.

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quli qutub shah adil shahi
Golconda Fort

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

Vijayanagar – Bahmani Conflict

  • Over the control of the Raichur doab (between rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra).
  • This area was fertile and rich in mineral resources.
  • The famous diamond mines of Golconda were located in the eastern part of the doab region.
  • The Krishna–Godavari basin, very fertile, control of foreign trade
  • In the Marathwada region, was extremely fertile and included with it the port of Goa
  • Port of Goa was an important outlet for export as well as import (especially of horses from Iraq and Iran).
  • Beginning of the Conflict It started on a large scale in 1367 during the reign of Bukka I.
  • He assaulted the fortress of Mudkal in the disputed Tungabhadra doab and slaughtered the entire garrison
  • The war dragged on for several months, but the Bahmani Sultan could neither capture the Raja nor his capital.
  • Finally, both sides were exhausted, and concluded a treaty which restored the old positions.
  • The reign of Deva Raya I began with a renewed fight for the Tungabhadra doab.
  • He was defeated by the Bahmani ruler, Firoz Shah

vijayanagar empire krishna deva raya bahmani kingdom quli qutub shah adil shahi

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